Thank You for the Synchroblog 2

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Thank you everyone who has joined in with the synchroblog and made it much better than than last month. All the posts that were written had their uniqueness and expressed everyone in his or her own way. Hopefully, you have gotten to see what makes every feel happy from hanging out with best friends to arts and music and even spending quality time with the family. It shows that everyone knows how to have fun and create a sense of the good Samaritan in each person. Again, thanks for helping out and participating. The more the merrier, the happier we will be. This time next month, look out for the next topic. Who knows what you may have to write about. Without YOU this could once a month "event" would not been possible. Now pat yourselves on the back!

Below you will find other bloggers who has participated in this month's synchroblog:

Until next time....!

Read On

Language and Speech Disorder: Dyslexia

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Dyslexia is when a person has the disadvantage of not being able to read and understand language as a normal person. Although they may act normal and do every day activities, but when it is required to read a text will have difficulties reading the words and sentences and may be comprehend fully what they read (1)***. Dyslexia does not just deal with reading skills, but it is also associated with a person’s intellectual concepts of writing, speaking, and processing information for understanding. Often, children will be teased in the classroom if their peers find out they can not read or they are a slower reader. This is a common learning disability that can be treated and progress to a better level if action is taken an earlier development stages (2)***.

A problem that coexists with dyslexia is the ability to not allowing a person to understand written or spoken language. The basic language sound system is phonemes. The letters and the way they sound when they are spoken together will be a challenge for the person who is trying to read a certain writing piece or any given text. The issue of pronouncing words and trouble with the phonics to sound out words will occur (3)***. Another problem is not being able to solve human functions such as creating a strategic plan, processing and retaining information. Often, with the mention of memory, the occurrences of forgetting how to sound out certain letters and words will happen. For example, a child could forget to say word with more than five letters or if they were to write down the word as the teacher recite them to the class, the student will repeat the word and write it down as they hear their understanding of how the word is pronounce in order to spell it on paper (4)***.

To further explain the disorder to expand the knowledge of a college student, he or she must know that the dyslexic person is having trouble understanding directions from a book and they are book and being misunderstood to produce whatever is given in the book or to read for a class assignment. Also if words and sentences begin to sound funny coming out of the person’s mouth and they are not speaking “English,” then that should be a sign. If some verbs or missing words are left out, then you know the person may not be dumb, but need help with their reading and language skills no matter how old they are; they need help (2)***. As a big effect, especially in children, their self-esteem may decrease once they have made it known to the other peers that they can not read or understand on a normal level. When a dyslexic person become emotional unstable, then you will know that there is something wrong and because they are able to use the talents they possess in another areas of life except for the fact of reading comprehension. They will fear not to continue to read out loud or to themselves, but to give up and become a failure (3, 5)***. Common symptoms for someone who may be dyslexic is the way they are really involved with arts and crafts, sports, building different things, having trouble staying focus and daydreaming (being in a totally different world). The sings of a person gets confused while reading and getting their letters, numbers, and having trouble with reading and speaking language will lead to a doctor to diagnose that someone is dyslexic. They may also have issues with hearing words and sentences and the ability to put them in correct order without stuttering or mispronouncing syllables. I do not exactly how behavior can be connected with dyslexia, but a misbehaving elementary student will be a class clown, get into trouble, disruptive behavior, if they had late development as they were younger, if they were affected in emotional settings whether at home or in the classroom (6)***.

If a person has dyslexia, the treatment option that could be offered is the act of taking training classes or specialized classes that will help target the individual’s needs that show weakness (1)***. If the person is a child in school, they will have to be evaluated to determine the exact problem. Future more, the results of the evaluation will allow the teachers or school officials find out if they have to be placed in special education classes in order to get help with their learning disability or just be in regular classes, but extra time or more advantages than their peers. There are a couple of methods such as the Slingerland Method, the Orton-Gillingham Method, and Project READ that can be used in order to test and allow the child to use their different senses to help build up the weakness that they may have (2)***. Most importantly, the Americans with Disabilities Act allows those dyslexic children to have legal help that will accommodate them in school by allowing them to change from school to another that will better suit them and allowing them to have extra inside and outside class time to complete daily assignments (5)***. It appears that there is not exact medicine or proper treatment for those who may have dyslexia; however, research shows that the continuation of the above methods and strategies will measure by a psychologist who will perform different tests in order to find the right method and recommendation that will help the particular patient. As placing students in special education classes will help the person with dyslexia, speech therapy, and even small group activities will help treat a dyslexic person since they will be able to work with other who have similar problems and they are able to learn from each other (7)***.

The long-term prognosis affects different people on different ranges and variables from mild to severe dyslexia since there are not any exact results or data to be studied. With this said, if dyslexia is treated an early stage such as childhood, then it is most likely they will keep learning and make good progress than being at the disadvantages of not understanding written language properly. A strong, supportive family can be helpful since they are willingly to help the dyslexic person to build up his or her reading skills to perform better in school and every day life. This is a good thing, in fact, since you will do not see anything uncommon that is negative from people with this disability (1)***. If the child is treated or receives any type of help, whether they are dyslexic or just general troublesome problems in school, it is best to help them out an early age because they will build up the foundation of learning and reading and being able to learn it easier than trying to learn at an older age (8)***.

Sources:

  1. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/dyslexia/dyslexia.htm***
  2. http://www.medicinenet.com/dyslexia/article.htm***
  3. http://kidshealth.org/teen/school_jobs/school/dyslexia.html***
  4. http://health.yahoo.com/children-resources/other-conditions-associated-with-dyslexia/healthwise--te7252.html***
  5. http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/learning/dyslexia.html***
  6. http://www.dyslexia.com/library/symptoms.htm***
  7. http://www.healthscout.com/ency/68/267/main.html#TreatmentofDyslexia***
  8. http://www.growingkids.co.uk/Dyslexia.html***
Read On

Mentally Challenged People

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Intelligent people are living throughout the world. Intelligent people are able to support themselves, think logically, and have the ability to reason. The important aspect of their life is to adapt to their daily lifestyle or any drastic change. Most people are born to highly intelligent. Others are born with and cope with the ability to have the skills of being a talented musician or a star athlete. However, with this in mind, there are a few people who are not on the higher scale of intelligence and having the normal life of self-supporting structures in life. The intelligence quotient (IQ) test measures a person’s abilities to think, reason, and level of understanding. The scores that are below 70 will result in the person being known to have the condition of not being the average Joe. The average score on an IQ test is in the range of 90 to 110. Mental retardation, or MR, is a condition that anyone with below the given score is not able to neither adapt to life nor have the ability to have the mental ability live a normal life (1)***. With this in mind, people with this type of disability are discovered during the stages of development though the age of eighteen. It does not matter what background you are, racial aspects, and education it could occur to anyone (1, 2)***. Mental retardation can also be defined as the incompetence to meet a standardized school test and the effortless ability to want to learn. This will mostly likely occur in elementary children at an earlier age (3)***. This special disability can deal with the youth and their way of going through the human development stages.

I will say that one main criteria used to diagnose mental retardation is going to be the intelligence quotient (IQ) test. In the textbook, it gives a breakdown of different IQs classifications according to the scores of the test. This type of test is called a psychological since test since it allows psychologists to check people for any disabilities or any other body conditions (4)***. The result will show if the person is below the average with any incompatible cognitive and adaptive skills. Often the cases, mental retardation will be diagnosed as a development delay and nothing else beyond those conditions (5)***. Mental retardation can also occur within the family depending on the family history and if anyone else is in this type of condition of being retarded. After a person is diagnosed with being retarded, the results must be put on a scale of how severe the disability may be and this will be different from person to person. The American Association on Mental Retardation does is not based on IQ test scores, but on the level of support for individuals to ensure the best way to help their patients and get them treated properly. They use the four supporting degrees of intermittent, limited, extensive, and pervasive (1, 6)***.

To get straight to the point, schools and other common places will measure or categorize the severity along the lines of mild to moderate and sever to profound. If a person has a mild condition of mental retardation the IQ score will range from 50-69. The weaknesses and the ability to not being able to do everything like being independent and going on with daily life will be noticed able in people with a mild condition of retardation. In children, some reading and writing would be a concern in school; however, this may be the case for other students as well. Adults will be able to manage life on their own and still be independent, but when they do everything, it may be at a slower rate than others. A small affect on speech can be noticeable as well with those who could be diagnosed with retardation. The next degree of retardation is at the moderate level. The person who may have a moderate degree of disability could probably have the IQ score between 35 and 49. At this stage, the person may have the ability to perform simple skills whether or not they are good at what they are doing. When you see a person who may be retarded or diagnosed to be that way, the appearance is not visible, but the social and speech skills will be noticed. This has to do with the inability to not being able to talk with every day people and understand what they are saying. Miscommunication could occur in a conversation or from one person to the next giving the task of directions to completing something. A person who will show a strong sign of being very mental retarded will have a score of 20-34 and this will be at the severe degree. These types of people will have a genetic disorder or down syndrome that deals with the tissues in their body (1)***. People will not be able to comprehend or understand what is going on around them. If the person may be an adult, they will be sent to a group home to live with others. There will be supervision by other adults that may work for a corporation such as Volunteer of America that will care and tend the people who are not able to think right and possible be handicapped in wheel chairs. They could also live with their own families if they want to care for the person who may be sick or unable to live without support (2)***. The last level or degree of retardation is profound. The IQ ranges from 20 and below. Contest care is the key to people in this condition of mental retardation. In simple terms, adults and it could be children as well, are mobilized, the need the help others to watch and care for them. They may be placed in group homes with people of similar conditions. There is really nothing else that can be done except to keep them living and continue working with them from day-to-day (2, 7)***.

There are many different causes of mental retardation; however, to name a few, one possible cause is complication that occurs during pregnancy. This affects the human development of the child and causes the brain to not fully form through the stages of life. For example, if a mother drinks alcohol or smokes, the baby will become retarded as it grows up. If this may be the case, the notice or appearance of not functioning normal or lacking the abilities to think, reason, or have a high intelligence level. The mother puts the baby at risk by doing rudely behavior and the baby may be at a risk of not being born or anything such as HIV infection and chromosome abnormalities. Also, stress to the head of the baby will lead to less oxygen to be provided during birth (8, 9)***. A second cause of someone being mentally challenged is getting diseases and lacking important nutrients for the body. Chicken pox and other diseases that the baby can get will affect the brain. For example, if the baby gets or measles will cause the baby to get meningitis. The inflammation of the membrane that covers the spinal cord gets infection by different bacteria that will lead to meningitis. This also damages the brain and can be treated an early stages with the side effects that will cause the baby to not grow and mature into a normal adult. A third reason that will cause a person to be retarded can be through biological genetic disorders. If one of the parents may have a disorder, the child can inherited it and error or a mix up with of genes can lead to complications. For example, down syndrome can occur within the child. Birth defects occur within the heart and hearing lost, different health related problems will help lead to mental retardation (8, 9)***.

Special education is given to those who may be mental retarded. They have to go through training classes to help improve social skills for them to function as a normal person.

Sources:

  1. King, Laura A. The Science of Psychology.***
  2. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761552226/Mental_Retardation.html#s1***
  3. http://www.psychologytoday.com/conditions/retardation.html***
  4. http://www.humanillnesses.com/Behavioral-Health-Sel-Vi/Testing-and-Evaluation.html***
  5. http://www.uab.edu/cogdev/mentreta.htm***
  6. http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=10349&cn=208***
  7. http://www.who.int/mental_health/media/en/69.pdf***
  8. http://www.wellesley.edu/Activities/homepage/bestbuddies/Buddies/mrAwareness.html***
  9. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/MEDLINEPLUS/ency/article/001523.htm***
  10. http://www.lpch.org/DiseaseHealthInfo/HealthLibrary/genetics/downs.html***
Read On

Synchroblog: I'm in a Good Mood When....

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Time sure flies. It is time to write about synchroblog post (number 2). This is a good topic. Usually I am in a good mood or sometimes there are certain things that will make happy or put me me in regular place. I do not know where to begin nor how to approach the subject. I'll "free style" this as thoughts come to mind.

- I'm happy and being myself when I am able to sit down and relax. I don't have to rush to complete a certain task; I can just take my time and put effort into the quality rather than the quantity.

- I'm usually in a good mood or being myself when I am able to listen to music. I am open to almost all types of music. I end up listening to the music videos during the mornings or pop on the radio to see the latest happenings around the city. Music relaxes me. Often, it is turned up loud when a favorite song is playing; other times, it is low where it allows to simulate the brain to think functionally and creative.

- I'm usually in a good mood when I am around family or spending time with them after not seeing them during the school week. I'm growing up at the speed of ... of ... a day! It is good to have good conversation with them and seeing them on the weekend. Often, too much time with them will send me overboard.

- I'm being myself when I eat. I enjoy eating and love food. Sometimes I just eat "too much." I mean who doesn't like to eat? Food gives off energy and fills the belly good enough to fall asleep once completing the task of eating a meal. So I'm being myself when I want to eat up everything I see.

- I'm in a good mood when I have done, if not all, but half of my homework. Having that feeling of lifting the burden off my shoulders feels great. It leaves time for social activities and time to be on the computer. Also, Time to coordinate the Synchroblog and this blog.

- I can not forget sleep. I have not been getting much sleep lately, so I usually am in a sluggish; nevertheless, I gear myself into being myself when the lack of sleep occurs. When I am fully rested or slept well, I'm usually in a good mood. A lack of sleep cause me to be on the downside.

I will say there are some a different ways I am being myself and other ways that keep me in a good mood. I have shared with you, not in great details, but a good foundation of understanding of what makes me happy.

Read On

Synchroblog 2

17 comments

Thank you everyone who has joined in with the synchroblog and made it much better than than last month. All the posts that were written had their uniqueness and expressed everyone in his or her own way. Hopefully, you have gotten to see what makes every feel happy from hanging out with best friends to arts and music and even spending quality time with the family. It shows that everyone knows how to have fun and create a sense of the good Samaritan in each person. Again, thanks for helping out and participating. The more the merrier, the happier we will be. This time next month, look out for the next topic. Who knows what you may have to write about. Without YOU this could once a month "event" would not been possible. Now pat yourselves on the back!

Below you will find other bloggers who has participated in this month's synchroblog:

Until next time....!

Read On

Memory and Success in College

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In this chapter of memory, I have learned (with great detail research and reading) a good understanding of memory and the different processes of retaining information. Furthermore, the sections of the chapter also gives an in depth look on encoding information, the process of storage the memories or information, the ability to retrieve memories, and failure of encoding involved in the process to retrieve memories (1).*** Although memory is a good concept of human development and the thinking process, it is highly important to use this understanding of memory to become a successful college student by memorizing any and all academic material.

There are many different ways a student could do to studying and retaining class material. Most strategies will work for all whereas others have found a particular favorite strategy that works best for them. Either way, the strategies all should help improve students in their academic performance. As long-term memory is sorted into different levels of theories, students should be able to organize the material they are learning by creating an outline. With this said, not just an outline that does not serve a purpose and use for jotting notes, but one with headings, keywords, and other details that is relevant to future tests or assignments. Properly creating an outline allows the student to study in an orderly manner (2).*** A student that uses this strategy will be active readers. People who may have the visual learning style may adapt to learning and studying by pictures, maps, diagrams, and printed notes. Also, they will be able to picture acronyms as a mnemonic to help them quickly remember. For example, they may want to remember the acronyms for the color spectrum or Great Lakes. Even creating a mental picture of what you are reading will help you better understand what you are studying. (3).*** Another good strategy that helps is not cramming the night before for a test, but study in advance study sessions alone or by yourself or with friends during a study session. With this in mind, these sessions will allow students to take an hour every other day for any given test and have a 10 minute break during the session. Also, instead of wasting the time, using the time available to create flash cards or take notes s and ask yourself questions as you read the textbook (4).***

To help increase academic performance, a student can recite what they have read or any class notes. This does not just mean going over what was read, but this strategy also includes asking yourself what you have read, closing your textbook in order to recite everything in your own words. Seeing what you read or have learned, being able to explain what you have learn to someone else, hearing yourself reciting, and writing what you read goes along with this strategy. In other words a student can use the reciting method of the SQ3R Reading Method (5).*** Lastly, the strategy of grouping items from a larger group (chunking or grouping) into smaller groups allows a person to remember the list or anything into short-term memory. A good example is a use of numbers, words, or letters. This technique works for those who may have short-term memory. It also works with remembering lists or different concepts under the same category (1).***

Each strategy that is listed in the paragraph above will help a student improve their performance in any college course and it also allows them to help process information through the memory system. A person must encode the information before it is stored into short-term, working term, or long-term memory, and then the information has to be retrieved out of the memory system. To better understand how each listed strategy will help improve a student’s memory process, the strategies must be reviewed in the order of the memory system. First, to improve the effort of encoding information students can form study sessions with either a group or alone. To this end, studying with a group or alone allows information to get into the storage of memory. The students are learning new knowledge to help support what they already know from previous years in school to allow the new information to sink into their mind. They are using their sensory memory to help them learn the material and reading everything they have in order to prepare to memorize it. Students must review information before they can memorize it (6).*** To help improve storage of memory, the next stage of the memory process, the strategies of reciting what you have read either out loud several times, writing it down on paper, or telling someone, chunking the information, and outlining helps students improve the storage memory system. The students that will find grouping information or reciting easier because retain information in the way they learn it. Also, they are having fun as they study to retain the information. By doing these strategies they are less likely to forget what they have learned because it is either stored for a short-term use or for long-term. Most important, they are and will be aware on how they study and memorize information. If the information is not stored in memory, they will have problems of remembering certain material learned in class for a test or pop quiz. If or when this does happen, poor scores will show how much they remembered and how they were able to chunk the information in order to visually map it out or able to recite certain information that may lead up to the elimination of wrong answers in order to find the right answer (7).***

Now that the information has been encoded and stored, in other to recall information from the storage of short-term and long-term memory, visualizing the information retained or learned will help students perform better in classes. This will help because they will recall the items at the beginning of the list and in the middle. Sometimes they will be prompted to retrieve because a certain memory is stored in one of the memory systems. Often they could have remembered or visually prompted to use their working memory in order recall information. From the context retained, they will retrieve the information in the order they have learned it and is able to repeat it to another person or write it on paper. Depending on their mood, they may also forget or increase their ability to recall stored memory (1).***

The ability for a student to use what they remember and their memory system, they will improve in academic studies and be successful students. Memory will be with us throughout life. Different strategies will work for different students in order for them to understand the multiple functions of memory and how it can be useful for them every day. From encoding, storage, and retrieve information, memory will always play a vital role.

Sources:

  1. King, Laura A. The Science of Psychology.***
  2. http://www.sdc.uwo.ca/learning/index.html?structure***
  3. http://www.accd.edu/sac/history/keller/ACCDitg/SSMT.htm***
  4. http://frank.mtsu.edu/~studskl/memprinc/disprac.html***
  5. http://www.studygs.net/texred2.htm***
  6. http://www.muskingum.edu/~cal/database/general/encoding.html***
  7. http://www.muskingum.edu/~cal/database/general/memory.html***
Read On

Alternatives to Punishment

2 comments

There are ways to punish a child if they misbehave. The child should not get spanked all the time for every little reason. Therefore, whether using positive parenting skills or finding alternatives for punishments, the child should get punishment and it should be used effectively. It is impossible to punish a child and then the child still misbehaves. This should be a clue to the parents to find other ways of punishing the child. To this end, without physical or emotional harm to the child is the best respect you should give the child. One way of going about an alternative is the parent allowing the child to have choices to make. Allowing them to make choices is teaching them to think and know what is right from wrong (1)***. For example if the child wants something different to eat for breakfast, the parent should not command the child to eat what they already have on their plate, but allow them to eat another morning meal. The parents may not like it if they were not given choices of what to eat; they would be highly upset. Throwing commands at the child is not going to help because you are throwing words at them and making their situation worse. This is not a war. Another way to not have corporal punishment or emotional results is to take the child out of the conflict that is unfolding around them. The child may question the parent to why he or she was removed, but the parent should be able to explain to their child what the conflict is and how it a bad influence (1)***. Instead of punishing the child, this one-on-one talk should help the child realize that there are other ways to handle a problem as the child grows older into adults.

When the parent feels like they need to use the belt or some other manageable object to physical punish the child, the child is at risk of having aggressive behavior. There is no reason to raise more bad people in this world than we have now. Beating the child too much can lead to child abuse. If the parent does not call it abusing their child, later the child will assume that they were abused if they are not physical punished correctly. Abusing the child is just wrong. Physical punishment can also lead to the child to fear the parents and be scared of them for the wrong reason. Children should fear their parents and not be scared of them. There is a difference. Along the same lines of physical punishment could work though there is an unhealthy side of this punishment, parents should avoid spanking the child (2, 9)***. However, positive child guidance can be used by the parents for the child instead of physical punishment. Too far often a child will have a parent who is neglectful, does not care about their child, and even will find the parents not wanting to be an actual parent to them; therefore, the parent should not be too strict and be like a military sergeant, but to use their authoritative skills (3, 8)***. A parent of this nature will be in the middle of the parenting style spectrum and knows what is best for the child.

There are some strategies that will help develop the child with respectful moral and an understanding of being a better person. These are alternatives that will be use to avoid physical punishment. It is good to punish the child, but in a more positive way and it is certainly effective if the child is taught at the age of understanding in order to avoid conflict and being spanked. For instance, parents can set clear and understandable rules. Rules will have loopholes, but it is better to make sure the child knows how to behave in the house and outside the house. Engaging in the child’s daily activities (asking them if you can join) if very helpful and allowing the child to know you care for them to stay out of trouble. Making sure they are learning character education such as being a trustworthy person and being responsible for their personal items and in every day life. If a situation appears to be leading in the wrong direction, the parent should grab their child out of the situation before it leads to violence or gets out of control. Most importantly, teaching the children how their actions and behavior will affect their peers at school, an elderly person, and in most cases even their siblings (4, 7)***.

To help parents understand how to disciple their children, there are a few principles that they must know. This is not only forming a healthy relationship, but to learning how to build a foundation on the principles of discipline (6)***. Though there are debates on how you should get spanked the child and vice versa, there are other ways to solve problems with the child’s behavior with going down the road of physical punishment. There are six principles that parents should consider using when they are going to punish or discipline their children for improper conduct whether be it at home or in the general public. As the first principle, not all negative consequences will help change the child’s behavior, but it will not have an immediate effect. Sometimes the parents will need to use reinforcement when they are going to punish their child. A good way is to punish them and take their toy away, but only give them a positive consequence, but yet teach them a lesson. All children have a favorite toy and if you take it away, the parent can allow them to have less amount of time to play with the toy than they usual do.

The second principle comes in play hen a parent reinforces punishment for the child positively, most likely as they grow older into adults they will learn and know that they should behave in the right way because it is what they are expected to do. In this case, they will not seem to be forced to behave in a certain way because they have been taught how to behave with moral values. At the stage of the third principle, a child has to suffer negative consequences; most likely they will get out of control since they did not do anything to cause them to get punished. For example, if they know that something happened and it is not their fault, they will continue to misbehave in order to get their way. They end up being aggressive and mean.

The fourth and fifth principle deals with positive reinforcement and positive systems. Time out for children will help control behavior in children because it is a positive system that will lead to the child to know not to behave in the way they did that caused them to get put into time out. This method and other positive systems should be used often effectively to teach the child positive values and know how to control their behavior. Lastly, as the sixth principle, the adult should use their firm voice, but still be kind to the child. Often it will take time to get the child to obey and understand what you are telling them. If a parent does not like the though efforts to allow the child to comply with them, then the last result is give them a negative punishment that will teach them a lesson to just go ahead take the punishment and it get over with for their own sake (5)***.

Sources:

  1. http://www.awareparenting.com/twenty.htm#up***
  2. http://www.awareparenting.com/spanking.htm***
  3. Laura, King A. The Science of Psychology.***
  4. http://extension.missouri.edu/xplor/hesguide/humanrel/gh6119.htm***
  5. http://web.wm.edu/ttac/articles/challenging/six.html?svr=www***
  6. http://www.adventuresinparenting.org/2008/02/26/the-foundation-of-discipline/***
  7. http://www.ebasedprevention.org/scenarios/positive-approaches-to-discipline***
  8. http://www.athealth.com/Practitioner/ceduc/parentingstyles.html***
  9. http://www.asfar.org/papers/corpun.php***
Read On

Blog-o-sphere News

3 comments

Good morning America! The weekend just zoomed on by without notifying me that it was going to end. School is going well and fall break will be here shortly and thereafter (in two months) will be the semester break. I don't know about you, but I am ready for the long wintry, break. I have not gotten to blog as you may have wanted me to, but I have shared with you some very good essays dealing with the human development, the way human learn, and everything about psychology. I hope you have found the essays to be thought provoking. It took some effort to write those essays for class and figure that I would share them with you.

In other news, Friday I had to opportunity to have an interview with Alex who runs the Student Bloggers network. I was very excited to have received the e-mail on last week to answer the questions with responses like none other. I am featured in the latest edition of Meet a Student Blogger. It is a very good interview between Alex and I on blogging, the Synchbroblog, and the future of me blogging after graduation. Go check it out!

The next round of Synchroblog will be later this month. October is back again along with Halloween. The topic may be related to Halloween. However, the topic has not be made yet. but nevertheless you can always suggestion any ideas or topics. However, the suggestion does really have to relate to Halloween, but you're always open to just say whatever you want. There may be some people that are already planning parties, deciding on what costume they want (for the younger children), and even the thoughts of haunted houses. A good thriller movie with your boyfriend or girlfriend would be spice up the romantic evening. And if you are single, then you can scar your own self with the elements of the movies and your imagination! So be on the lookout for the this month's topic.

Read On

Positive and Negative Punishment

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When we all were young, punishment came in handy for our parents because they could have spanked us, taken the toy blocks from us, or even help us learn a lesson and from the mistakes of misbehaving. In this manner, parents are most likely to use negative punishment. This is defined as someone’s behavior decreasing because the positive stimulus is not longer present (1)***. An example of negative punishment is when a teacher removes a child from the class because he or she is misbehaving. The result of this the child getting taken out of the positive reinforcement of the learning environment to be separated from the others by being asked to sit in a corner and face the window or another punishment that does not allow the child to be with the rest of the class. In this case, the child gets punished and most likely will not make the mistake again in the future. On the bright, sunny side of punishment is positive punishment. Positive punishment along with negative punishment and all other concepts (listed in the textbook) can be confusing if the topic is not explained clear enough. This type of punishment occurs when a behavior decreases when the stimulus is not good. In other words, you have the behavior plus the stimulus in one way or another, which equals the effect on future behavior of a person. The stimulus is added to help decrease behavior (1)***.

Sometimes the consequences of the actions of the person who is getting punished can be good or bad. It all depends on the situation. Like humans, pets can be trained and punished as well. I have learned through research and the textbook that the punisher is also known as the aversive stimulus (1, 2)***. Sometimes a person can be afraid of the aversive (the human) because he or she knows what may happen although the consequences were thought out before misbehaving. The use of punishment must be effectively with either positive or negative reinforcement because the person with the bad behavior will most likely continue to have the same behavior before getting punished (2)***. Punishment can work with animals, too. Dogs, for example, are smart pets for animal loves; however, they have their own behavioral problems just as people do. The psychologist B. F. Skinner (1938) helped discover the concept of operant conditioning. Operant condition involves with an organism’s activity in the surrounding environment (1)***. With this said, dog owners will help dogs associate their activity or behavior so it will not occur often as it does or they will decrease the behavior so it does not exist any longer. A positive punishment that can be used with dogs is a water gun. This is a good example since it is harmless than other methods such as a shock collar that will cause pain to the dog. Continuing on with the example of the dog and the water gun, if the dog is outside and every time it goes into the owner’s house it gets the floor dirty and just make a mess everyone, the owner can use the water gun to spray the dog. However, just spraying alone will not be any use. Therefore, using verbal words and saying “no” as the dog comes in the house and leading the dog back outside will be a start to the decrease of the behavior. Reinforcement must be used because the punishment will not be effective. After doing this repetitiously, the dog may see the owner with the water gun and not even come into the house because it will know what will happen. (3)***.This is a good example of positive punishment that can be used on dogs as house pets.

To further explain the difference or the types of punishment, two more examples of positive and negative punishment will be given. A positive punishment is the use of time out. This is used in school and home by removing the misbehaving child from the positive environment in order to be placed in isolation (1)***. This happens at school because the child is causing problems with another student or being disruptive. Using time out whenever the child falls out of place, the stimulus (the punisher) must use a firm voice after a warning or two so the child is aware that you mean business. If the adult shows fear or starts to yell, then the time out is a waste of time and it will be used ineffectively (4)***. From using this form of punishment, the child is allowed to think about their actions and the consequences of their actions. Again, the adult who is dealing with the child should be calm and not loud. With this in mind, firm kindness and setting an example for the child is the goal of time out. The child is also learning how to decrease his or her behavior and think before acting in order to not repeat the bad behavior. The parent should keep in mine the location of where the child will be placed when in time out because active play should not be acceptable in this use of discipline. It is said to put the child in time out per minute of the child’s age (5)***. A negative punishment that deals with negative reinforcement is someone driving in heavy traffic trying to go to work or school. This is a negative punishment because it is being reinforced by the effort of avoiding traffic. However, you decide to leave home a lot earlier to avoid traffic because you want to make it one time for whatever is going on with at school or work. You try to go around the consequences of being late and stuck in traffic because you did not learn from your lesson from the day before on not leaving on early to make sure you are on time (6)***. This negative punishment is being reinforced by you avoiding the heavy traffic. We all know what the traffic is like in Memphis. So to these two are examples of two types of punishments.

In a previous class, I wrote on the topic of spanking in the form of punishment and the issues of physical punishment. Spanking can be considered positive punishment because the parent is teaching the child not to misbehave. At most times there is no reinforcement when the child is get spanked or beaten. The parent may just have the excuse of spanking a child because of anger or because they feel that they really need one for unjust causes. Also this is not an effective punishment because the child will get adapted to the parent spanking him or her and just keep misbehaving. That could lead to three or more spankings in one day (8)***. On the other hand, it can also be negative because the child will learn how to be afraid of the parent or fear the adult since he or she may know what the consequence may be if this is unacceptable conduct either at home or at school. Also it depends on how often the child is spanked in order to consider this as true discipline (7)***. Reinforcing the spanking with a firm voice will allow the child to know that the parent is the boss and that they mean what they say and they should do what they say. Either the child will obey or they will get spanked. It is the child’s choice of good or bad (9)***. This is a parent that uses authoritative parenting style. Spanking can go both ways of either type of punishment.

I remember when I was younger, not exactly, per se, but I remember getting punished. I got punished, mostly likely in the form of getting a beaten with the belt or grounded from my unacceptable behavior and a few grads here and there. The punishment was very effective because I learned my lesson and did my best to behave so that I will get the TV or computer taken away from me. I certainly did not want to get hit with the belt. The punishment affected me short and long term because I either learned the lesson or kept misbehaving or I continue to be on the right track of doing good in class and at home. Now from reflecting back on the punishment, I realized that my mother was only teaching me a lesson because she was the only parent in my life.

Sources:

  1. King, Laura A. The Science of Psychology.***
  2. http://www.drlinden.net/CBTLEC10.pdf***
  3. http://www.dogmanners.com/punishment.html***
  4. http://www.keepkidshealthy.com/parenting_tips/discipline/time_out.html**
  5. http://www.kidsbehaviour.co.uk/UsingTimeOutAsPunishment.html***
  6. http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/proj/nru/nr.html***
  7. http://www.apa.org/releases/spanking.html***
  8. http://www.naturalfamilyonline.com/5-ap/45-spanking-child.htm***
  9. http://earlychildhood.suite101.com/article.cfm/spanking_pros***
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Peer versus Parent Influences

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Judith Rich Harris believes that a child or anyone can be influenced by someone, in this case a young child, their every day experiences. Not only do children see what the parents do and fall into their habits, but they also are influenced by others such as their peers or outside linking environmental factors (1)***. Harris includes in her book the research data of twins being adopted and they are separated and living a life of their own, children who go to daycare while their parents work and those who actually stay home with them. Most importantly, the viewpoint of those who may be raised in a single household with one parent, and those children with both parents living with them (2)***. In one of her articles, Harris uses the Cinderella story as an example of her beliefs. She uses the story to tell show that Cinderella had two personalities: one at home with her stepsisters and another with the prince. She behaves different and obeys the sisters and does whatever they say and with the prince, he is in love with her and would like to date her and all that good stuff. However, though this is a fairy tale, she gives the readers this example to allow them to better explain what she believes in and to support her case in nurture assumption (2)***. If a child has other siblings it is possible for the parents to raise them all and treat them all equally, but yet they will be less influenced by the parents. This is possible because outside of the home they will be hanging around different group of friends mixed with people of various backgrounds (7)***. There are plenty of issues and debates that will go along with the issue of parents not having an ounce of influence on their child versus influence from the child’s friends.

As research shows, there are plenty of people jumping on Harris’ back about her book as well as what she believes in with child development. One fact that help Harris earn criticism is the information she writes about the genetics of the parent and how their genes are the biological aspect of helping to influence or raise their children (1, 3)***. Along with the genes the parents may have mostly influenced the children through positive parenting (3)***. When the parent is involved, they are helping the child to further develop their social skills and assisting with child development. Through research it appears that everyone is attacking her credentials and background information. Most are criticizing that she is not ready for the job or she is no the right person to do what she is doing and producing these facts and making judgments on influences on peers from each other or their parents. Some researchers criticize Harris on the issue of her believing that nature does not play a factor in child development. It is all about nurture rather than the biological inheritance (1)***. Instead of a certain condition such as breast cancer, sickle cell, or any other condition that pertains to the body, but it could be the nature of the child whether the child is influenced to be good or bad. Along the same lines if the child is influenced by the parent, then the child will act differently according to where they may be at and end up picking up other behaviors. They are responsible for parenting the child, but the child has a choice to take that advice from the parent and use it in life and even through the other stages of human development. (7)***. It does get complicated on others disagreeing with some of the information and conclusions Harris has reached over the last several years.

After doing a bit of research, I think about everything I have read in order to state my stand point on which side of this issue is the strongest. I could go for what Harris has said and everything (with the intention of cherry picking), but I could always end of contradicting myself. So with an open mind, parents can influence make a difference in their child’s life. That is their job. That is what parents are made for. If they are not influencing their child to be right or to be unique or different among all others, then they are not being a good parent. If this may be the case, outside of the home, the pressure from other peers may cause the child to be different. There is a possibility of the child or anyone, even teenagers and college students, and adults, to appear one way towards the parents, one way towards their friends, and another way towards their own selves. Not to digress, but the child must get help from the parent and teachers to start developing their social skills and come to the realizations of their moral values (1)***. Does it really matter if the parents are showing true influence in the family? Could other factors such as financial problems that the family is having and they are struggling, the ethnic background of the child, and peer pressure at school that will influence the child differently than what their family, teachers, and best friends (1, 4)***. In some aspect the parent will raise the child to be a respectful citizen whereas they may be influenced to misbehave at school or some place else?

After reading Harris’ views, I am not quite sure how I might change my own child-rearing practices. To look back on physically punishment, that can be a factor on influence the child to be respectful, aggressive, or a runaway child. However, it would be a good reason to influence my child to be good because that is what parents are for when have a child. Setting good examples is a good parenting influence since I am normally set good examples no matter who I am around. In the future, raising a child, it is important to be involved in his or her life because with less influence and paying attention to the child, he or she will mostly likely face peer pressure and this can lead to behavioral problems (5, 7)***. Parents should do their best to influence and raise their child or children to behave and make moral decisions. Everyone is different and has individual characteristics. However it is the parents to show responsibility to make sure the child or children get their act together to be a better person and to know that they can do anything they want.

Sources:

  1. King, Laura A. The Science of Psychology.***
  2. http://gos.sbc.edu/h/harrisj.html***
  3. http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/books/1998/9811.williams.parents.html***
  4. http://www.psychpage.com/family/library/harris.html***
  5. http://www.oberlin.edu/faculty/ndarling/adpeer2.htm***
  6. http://millennialchild.com/millennialchild/Assuming%20Nothing.htm***
  7. http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Marshall1.html***
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