A common psychological disorder that causes people to have a very high thought process is called schizophrenia. If someone has this disorder, they would be noticed as schizophrenics. While those without the disorder may face the reality of the word, others schizophrenia will be in their own little word trying to find out the meaning of certain events or they just may be a little frightened. There is a 1.1 percent of young adults eighteen years and older that may have schizophrenia. In order to overcome this “split mind” of any such person and to help gain their sense of disordered life, you must know the symptoms of schizophrenia (1)***. To briefly discuss the symptoms of schizophrenia, they are generally classified as positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive deficits. Positive symptoms are when people have that sense of reality with a little bit of their own world as their psychological behavior. The symptoms are not really supposed to be there in their daily behaviors. Such symptoms are hallucinations when the sense of the real world nowhere near their human thought process. If a person is experience hallucinations, they may be hearing voices that the normal people are not hearing. They could also see things that may not exist to the eyes of other people. Negative symptoms are those signs of decreased or lost of normal functions. People with this classification of negative symptoms do not have any facial expressions and emotions. These are characteristics that normal people have that they are missing. This could be known as the flat affect where people show no emotions and unable to maintain facial expressions. Someone who fits this description may not show the expression of laughing a funny joke is told or they may show that they are mad. Lastly, cognitive symptoms deals with the way of thinking and the ability to hold use their memory systems and make reasonable decisions. (1, 2)***.

There are four types of schizophrenia: disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, and undifferentiated. The first type of schizophrenia is disorganized. When people have this type of disorder, they have an unclear thought process of seeing imaginary things with inability to find meaning in what may be doing on around them. All of the person’s emotions are shaken up into a mixture of different behaviors. Someone could say this person is going crazy if they laughed while the light turns green or if they act childish at an adulthood age. Also, the disorganized schizophrenia can be caused by isolation as the person grew up during the teenager stages. The next type deals with the crazy movements and the inability to control their motor skills; including to not having the full control of what they say since they could be repeating what is being said over and over. People at this level may need a stay-at-home nurse since they may not be able to take care of themselves; especially they are outside of the home. If someone is acting a little bit beyond normal and they are having delusion that may not be true, then that person has paranoid schizophrenia. They may have the delusion that a certain event can be a message that is about their lives or people are plotting to kill them. This call goes against their beliefs and religious views since they have the thought disorder of being the opposite of normal (1)***. The fourth type of schizophrenia is undifferentiated. When someone has this type of schizophrenia, they may not have a couple of characteristics or description of the other types, but they have the symptoms of disorganized behavior, seeing things, having delusions, or any other type of schizophrenia. People of this nature are in a category of their own. (1, 3)***.

There are many different causes of schizophrenia whether they are biological factors or dealing with the mind, and environment. In a biological aspect, those who may have direct relations with someone who already has schizophrenia will most likely have a ten percent chance of getting this disorder where as the general population is one percent. It is rare for someone to attract themselves to schizophrenia since you can not be exposed to it nor pass it on too others, but genetics help influence the disorder to be involved. If a woman is pregnant and is having a baby, stress can raise the hormone cortisol and later in the development of babies can be a cause of this disorder. It is very interesting to see that identical twins have a higher rate of developing schizophrenia. Low oxygen level at birth, exposure to a virus, and sexual abuse can also be leading causes of schizophrenia. The regulation of neurotransmitters can also help the development of this rare disorder since the brain can get too much of dopamine and the lack of glutamate is being released into the body (4)***.

Schizophrenia is treated with different medicines and therapy treatment that meets the patient’s needs. However, to help treat the psychological disordered minded patients there are antipsychotic meds that reduces people from hallucinations, thinking in a way where they could be stalked because of their twisted mind, and help them to become more social. Along with the efforts to take the medicines to treat schizophrenia, there are some side effects such as dry mouth, dizziness, muscle spasm, and abnormal body movements. Psychotherapy helps with patients who are not emotionally stable. If a patient gets treated medicine it is to help control their behavior and lower the schizophrenic symptoms. Not only these affected people have individual sessions with a professional, they can also attend sessions with psychologists and other similar people, schizophrenic people will be able to share their stories and have discussions to help them become more social and gain the skills to act like a normal person. Any type of support group should be recommended in order to keep the person under controlled conditions and “normal” functions (5)***. If the person with schizophrenia gets too crazy and beyond their state of mind, they may get need to check into the hospital for safety reasons and if that does not work, maybe they need to be put into an asylum for those who are paranoid and have delusions. With all of this in mind, the medicines taken help to bring the unbalanced chemicals to a stable stage and psychotherapy helps to treat those with this psychological disorder (6)***.


  1. King, Laura A. The Science of Psychology.
Read On

Major Depressive Disorder


One of the classifications of the depressive disorder is called Major Depressive Disorder or MDD. This type of depression deals with an individual’s emotions, behaviors, and somatic disturbance. However, in most cases, depressed people can overcome their disorder whereas someone with the major depressive disorder can have an episode for at least two weeks and maybe longer. Some of the symptoms of major depressive disorder are the reduce time or energy to activities that are typical done, trouble having sleep at night, feeling doubtful about yourself and worthless, thoughts of harming oneself and suicidal thoughts, just generally being in a depressed mood. Sometimes the case could be the sadness of a close relative that has died in the family (1)***.

There is a link between depression and heredity because people with family members who are depressed or have this disorder are mostly likely to have a greater risk of developing it themselves. This is possible because often there may be a parent who is suffering with any mood disorder and it could be passed down to his or her child. People with bipolar will also have a much increased risk of it being heredity in their families; especially in identical twins (1, 2)***. One aspect of neurobiological abnormality that is found with people who have MDD is the issue of sleeping and brain activity. These people with this problem of sleeping tend to go to sleep at an earlier time than those who are not depressed. This is caused by the feeing of being a slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement that deals with decreased activity in the brain as they cycle through the depressive phrases (1, 6)***. Also, neuron death and disability is another abnormality because individuals who are depressed how fewer neurons in the prefrontal cortex that improperly send signals to the amygdale.

Within the socio-cultural factors of MDD deals with the proximal and distal interpersonal relationships that will bring back memories to someone who may be predispose to MDD. Those experiences and memories can cause the person to be sad most of any day or just down in the dumps. If a family is living in a lower class or in poverty, that can also be a factor of depression since that family may have to live in a neighborhood of violence, hopelessness, and alcohol (1)***. Women will mostly likely develop depression than men because they may be married or single raising children on their own and have jobs that do be the best responsibility they want. It is also proven that stressed out women will be depression. So there is a bit of gender difference when it comes down to who will be depressed or may end up being exposed to others who are depressed through personal experiences and marriages (3)***.

With all the research and reading of the textbook, I would probably tell a friend that get self help by starting to overcome depression by doing the opposite of the typical symptoms and kind of get out and be a little more social. This is also known as intervention before the depressive emotions get to the state of being suicidal thoughts. A good resource can be attending support groups and psychotherapy will help since it allows the person to gain more social skills and recreate healthy relationships with other people (6)***. Also, doctor offices and health clinics will have brochures that will give information on MDD and how to prevent it. I would also tell my friend tell consequences (or use scar tactics in order for him or her to seek help) of MDD if there is no intentions of wanting to get self help (6)***. Such consequences as drug abuse, being moody or sad all the time, and death by killing self. I could also give my friend advice that can help him or her from preventing MDD going beyond extreme measures. Such advice that can be given is doing activities that will lower stress, go for walks to clear the mind of any sad experiences or deaths of family members, maintaining good eating habits since the mood disorder will factor into weight loss (4)***.

There are several common treatments for any depressive person. From research combined treatment of psychotherapy and medicine can help with the treatment of this mood disorder because it is very effective. Another treatment method is psychotherapy alone because it helps people refocus on building interpersonal relationships with pro-active activities between sessions because it helps with benefits that are gained from sessions with the therapist and the client. Hospital treatment comes to play when the person starts to think about death and suicide and antidepressants are given until the patient is recovered back to normal conditions. This type of treatment also deals with sessions with professional health officials and making sure the patient is able to stay alone without any safety concerns. (5)***.


  1. King, Laura. The Science of Psychology.
Read On

20SB Blog Swap 3


20SB Blog Swap 3 Todays guest post is brought to you by Nuttycow from Parlez-vous moo? This is all part of the 20 Something Bloggers "Blog Swap 3". Don't forget to go check out my post over at Parlez-vous moo?





Nuttycow's rules on how to write good.

George Orwell had six rules for effective writing.

· Never use a metaphor, simile or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.

· Never use a long word where a short one will do.

· If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.

· Never use the passive where you can use the active.

· Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.

· Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.

For me, the last rule is the most important. Rules, as they say, are made to be broken (she says, breaking rule number one). Far better to write naturally and fluidly, getting your story across, than stick rigidly to a set of commandments. Please bare this in mind when reading the rest of this post…

Now, I know this subject has been written to death but hell, I should get the chance to share my £0.02 worth too (or, I suppose for American readers, my $0.02 worth).

Spelling: Spell cheque is their for a reason. Of course, it won’t catch all the spelling mistakes you might make, but it’s a start.

Grammar: If you’re not sure on the order of words, when to use “whom” and when to use “who”, look it up. Honestly, it’ll make your writing easier much to read.

Basic knowledge: Our or are? Your or you’re? Their or there? To, two or too? Its or it’s? Learn the difference and where they’re used. Please.

Write as you talk: Ok, this might seem an odd one. Generally, when people speak they don’t pay much attention to syntax, semantics and all of those good things. They just talk. They get the point across. And that’s what your writing should do too. People find it much easier to understand things when it’s not covered in a myriad of long words, sub clauses and waffle.

However… at the same time adopt an appropriate tone: If you’re writing your company’s annual report, conversational style might not be the best way forward. That is, unless your company is of the Google and Innocent mould.

Layout: Writing a long piece? Lay it out properly. This means paragraphs, bullet points, varying length of sentence. Honestly, it makes it a lot easier to read. Be kind to your reader (especially if you’re writing online)

Gobbledygook: Yes, the people you live with may well know that EBM means “Evil Bastard Man” and refers to your ex-boyfriend, your audience may not. Although you might just want to to touch base and talk about some blue sky thinking, everyone else will just think you’re weird. Speak English.

Long words: You may be a naturally verbose individual. You might feel long words somehow make you the eminence grise. However, your circumlocution and affectation for using long words just makes your reader feel a little stupid.

Know your readers: Who’s reading your writing? A 5 year old? A 50 year old? Someone who knows the subject matter as well as you do? Adjust your writing accordingly.

What about you? What do you think makes good writing?

Read On

Thoughts from a Writer


There should be people that can understand each other so we can make a difference, find true friends, and not feel like an outcast or a reject. Often we have the chance to be someone who can reach self-actualization. To understand each other it takes one to know one.

Would it be a pleasant world to live in if we were able to get what we want and need? Could we go a day just not worrying about those fake people, those people who want to be like someone else? What would the country be like in 10 years? How about 5 years? Stop. Think. Stop and think...

At the end of the day we all are different. We can only be humans and just live, enjoy, and make the best of life. You should take that little light of yours and let it Take that second to light another person's light that is not glowing. <u?Let's not contradict with each other, but rather come to the conclusion in order to disagree with other opposite views with respect. Stop. Think. Stop and think...

You are not going to reach self-actualization if you do not get to beyond the point of not reaching the goal of what you want in life. Again, take a second your light and shine it on someone else. They just may need it. Stop. Think. Stop and think...

Take the less taken road. That road that that everyone else has gone may not be the right one for you or you do not recognize the brick walls down that wall; so it is important to find the road less taken and go on adventure.

Read On

Your Emotions Are Contagious


Emotion is a very important aspect of the human being. Without emotion, how can a person be expressive? How can a person show feelings of sadness or excitement? We all show our emotion verbally and nonverbally. Our emotions and how we express them can influence others and be passed on as contagious emotions. With this in mind, the facial feedback hypothesis can be viewed as the facial emotions and how we reflect them to be interpreted to others. For example, when professional models have to do their photo shots they must show a precise emotion such a being happy with a big open, smile showing all the white pearls and dimples or they may be just laughing. You have to understand this because when people are actually being happy or acting all serious, that person can allow the other person to be the same way (1)***. If someone feels really sad and depressed often the other people around them can feel the same way. An example, of this is when the football played got killed and the day after the University opened back up, the campus felt really sad and dead. Students were not in class and the day was moving slow. I could actually feel the contagious emotion of this tragic event. If someone is feeling happy and hyper, then they can pass that emotion on while they are having leisure time with his or her friends. Gender influence the meaning of contagious emotions because society has a set standard that males are to act like one way and females are most likely to pass on to females; possibly males as well. Stereotypical people have certain expectations of how gender affects the behavior of humans (1)***.

From research, those who are really hyper and bouncing all off the wall (or just happy) will most likely to pass on that feeling to someone else because they will tell the others how they feel and make the other person be the same way as well. Along the same lines, people who are depressed and tell an emotional story can cause that feeling to fall one someone else (2)***. When people are having conversations with each other, their feeling, especially facial expressions, are being mimic at every second with no regards of consciously thinking. This deal with in instinct of reacting emotionally whether one is sad or happy. This is evidence that emotions can be contagious and be passed on to others (1, 3)***. This can happen to students in the classroom between the students and teachers since they do know each other. The classroom may not be a healthy place to learn if there is violence or angry students throughout the class (6)***. In therapy, you are speaking with the psychologist or doctor to get help so the mood of the happy psychologist or doctor will be passed onto their patient because they are there to help them with whatever problems they may have and not make things worse. Also, if the doctor is serious and tensed, then the patient will feel that vibe and be nervous or scared because the doctor is not too friendly.

To talk about the contagious emotions in the workplace, by the workers bringing their moods and feelings from home to the workplace and not being considering to keep the atmosphere positive. Furthermore, if a person has a boss that is generally happy and positive on the job and making sure all the employees are doing their job correctly and satisfying the customers and the next day he appears to be to have a look on his face as if something is bothering him, then one of the workers will mostly likely respond to his facial expression. In other words, his concerned, worried look will cause another coworker to be concerned too since the boss is usually happy, and excited to be at work; instead the bad news of having to lay off some of the employees is the main concern will lead to a contagious emotion go spread. (4)***. Another instance is when a coworker, student, or anyone wakes up on the wrong side of the bed and bring their angry to the normal working environment and everyone noticed. When asked what is wrong, the angry person will start yelling because he or she does not want to be bothered. When this happens everyone else will be angry to because they were yelled at for someone else bringing personal problems to the working environment instead of having a positive attitude and not be a negative person for that day. This will have a cause and effect situation with everyone since the angry emotion was passed on from one person to the next (5, 7)***.

With the knowledge that emotions are contagious can could influence others to be the same way as we are feeling, I think that there can be a difference shown in others if we lead with a positive outlook or we have an positive attitude towards different experiences. Leading with a positive attitude can also help those who may feel sad when a tragic event happens. If you come visit them at their house or get them out the house and having fun, then you will respond emotionally to what they are feeling at the present moment (8)***. Also, in the future, it is important to mange and control my emotions rather let the emotions control me. In other words, instead of allowing someone else feels one way while I am in a happier mood, I could stop and know that they could be manipulating me to feel the same way as you. They could trying to push how they feel about a situation on me rather me having my own emotionally reaction to situation from another perspective (8)***. This can also mean that I will understand concept of display rules that relates to how I am suppose to expressed my emotion during the when, where, and how during a given situation. This could also mean that I can catch another person’s emotion by allowing them to set the mood or do something that will make me feel the same way (1)***. The understanding of contagious emotions and different situations, and every day conversations when they occur, they can an affect one me and as well as everyone else.


  1. King, Laura. The Science of Psychology.***
Read On

Issues in Education


In my Oral Communication class we have to give speeches on any chosen topic. I decided to keep the issue of education from English Composition 1020 class and present speeches informing, persuading and calling of actions to help change the the difficulties we are having currently in the education field. With this said, I am sharing you what I believe are some issues that should be changed in the American school system. You may agree or disagree with me, but nevertheless, we should take a step up to provide ever student a quality education like in the past (maybe even before No Child Left Behind). Below you will find different notes on different issues in education that are current happening somewhere across the country. I am sure that we all need to be ware of the education system whether it does not pertain to us, but it does to your children, nieces, nephews, and cousins, and everyone else.


  • Education is like a button on a coat; we all need it to help us in any field of studies and even the workplace.
  • Improving education is important because we all should meet the standards of providing the best education possible future citizens of today’s society in America.
  • When researching background information on school assessment and where it branched out, I found out that during the 1930’s, the College Entrance Examination Board created the SAT test. The SAT was the first, single test for college admission.
  • During the 19th century, teachers were interviewed by board members and a member from the church on order to make sure none of the students showed any immoral conventional views or beliefs of their religion (Ravitch).
  • The idea of “teaching to the test” is cheats the students out of their free education by teaching directly to a curriculum that will help the student past rather than allowing them to have the knowledge of different educational ideas and methods (Jamie McKenzie).
  • I agree with Linda Bond, director of North Central Regional Educational Laboratory that we should use standardized effectively to promote the learning abilities from outside the classroom to workplace and beyond.


  • Robert Lynch, president and CEO of Americans for the Arts, really does a good job saying that “reading and math, while essential, are simply not enough.
  • A better American school system is the way to go in order to produce successful citizens and to get them out of poverty.
  • An increase of the debate NCLB can cause students to dropout of school before graduating because they are pressured to make the school have higher scores and which reduces the time to allow the teacher instruct the class.
  • Tests get in the way of actual teaching, schools losing future teachers, and the “work like a robot” effect is in place and they are able to do the best they can.


  • Many schools across the nation and including in Memphis are filled with violent students and putting everyone, including the teachers at risk.
  • The National Education Association documents that there are problems at home such as children feeling guilty for the situations in the household and students who are being bullies to their peers. (NEA, 2008).
  • Focusing on issues of school assessment, the NCLB Act, and school safety will ensure students that we are working to provide them with the education they can possibly receive in this country.
  • The professor and psychologist Dr. Lisa Medoff formulates in her book that students are faced with peer pressure that cause them to misbehave, do drugs, and ditch school.
  • Violence can also happen when students are bullied, feel unsafe, and take matters into their own hands



  1. Lynch, Robert L. “No Child Left Behind Act Wrongly Left the Arts Behind.” February 2008.
  2. Stiggins, Richard J. “Assessment, Student Confidence, and School Success.” Kappan Professional Journal. November 1999: pgs. 191-198. Vol. 88.
  3. Ravitch, Diane. “A Brief History of Testing and Accountability.” Hoover Digest. Hoover Institution.
  4. National Education Assoication, "Safe School Manual: A Resource on Making Schools, Communities, and Families Safe for Children.” 2008 25 Sep 2008
  5. McKenzie, Jamie. "Killing NCLB in 2007." The September Issue of No Child Left Vol. IV No. 8. 09 2006 23 Oct 2008
  6. Bond, Linda. "Critical Issue: Rethinking Assessment and Its Role in Supporting Educational Reform ." North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (1995) 23 Oct 2008
  7. Medoff, Lisa. Stressed Out Students. New York, NY: Kaplan Publshing, 2008.
Read On

My Humanistic Perspective


The humanistic perspective continues to evolve around the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the positive aspect of human personality. When people have this type of perspective, they are aware how people perceive themselves and the world as well. Though this perspective may focus on, the optimistic side of human behavior, observation occurs to show that the personality develops from motivation to grow and actualize our selves. I decided to choose this perspective because it focuses on the understanding of our freedom of choice, personal growth, and individual abilities to deal with stress or meeting our desires and get a better understanding of ourselves (1). Furthermore, with the understanding of personal growth, freedom to make our own decisions, and just the way we handle the pessimistic view of life and conflict can help us understand the humanistic perspective (2). Choosing this perspective is a valuable aspect since it helps define our personality, social behavior, a way of thinking, the presence of both a good or bad vibe (spirit), and self-awareness (3). Self-actualization can help define our personality since it allows of thinking, being creative, showing our emotions, interaction with others, and overcoming the brick wall (1). This is what the humanistic perspective is all about how it deals with personality.

We all know about Maslow and his approach of self-actualization and the basic needs that we have to meet and will lead us to success. With this in mind, humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers (1902-1987) believes that people were born with a conscious that allows them to make the right choices in life. People are suppose to be show their true selves by realizing their genuine feelings rather than according to societal standards (1). The theory of self-concept is what Rogers concluded as an approach for a humanistic perspective. Self-concept deals with an individual’s overall view of their selves and their abilities to assess human behaviors. Rogers’ approach is that people are not acceptable with their true self. In other words we want to reflect ourselves to be someone we are not in order to have a higher condition of worth. The higher our image is to ourselves and others, the more congruent we are in order to find our real self, worry less about others, and our experiences will be more positive (4). Self-concept relates to the level of someone’s self-esteem; whether it is low, medium, or high, it relates to the concept of a person understand his or self’s personality and perspective (5).

Now that I have read and research about the humanistic perspective and the theory from both Maslow and Rogers, I find it interesting how I can relate to this perspective because in some form I have believe to have this sense of style or thinking that I use in my life. This all seem so complicated with the different perspectives and the different theories of personality. Along with the subject of hierarchy of needs, self-actualization, and self-concept, there are three methods that Rogers proposed to help a person to form a better positive self-concept if they have some negatives in their life: unconditional positive regard, empathy, and genuineness (1). I can relate and analyze myself to these psychological aspects. As an overview, when I am approached by someone that is negative or bring up a topic that could lead into an argument, I try my best to use my beliefs of the humanistic perspective, to sort of push my thinking to change what they may believe to positive. I am a person of positive and I try to meet all needs to reach self-actualization and have the theme of self-concept. I am aware of my personality and the type of person I am. I generally stand out and according to Rogers, asses my abilities to where I am happy and not to be aligned with the stereotype of society. I am reaching self-actualization for myself and not for others (6). I believe that I have the personality of unconditional positive regard because I am open to hearing other people’s opinions and believes and acceptable of them though I may not get along with them or we may have opposite views on any given topic. I usually am accepting to others even if they have an inappropriate behavior; however, I kind of steer away from those types of people to help from more positive self-concept (1, 7).

The next method or characteristic of a positive self-concept is empathy. I am no a perfect person and usually centered about me and usually do not think of others in certain situations. This has happen a few times in my life. Depending on a person’s age and how often I talk to them or in certain situations, I will show empathy because I could understand their perspective versus mine and relate to how they feel. Often, I can not put myself in other people’s shoes per se; however, I am able to listen and help guide a person to a positive image; to make them feel wanted (8). The third method or characteristic is, genuine. When this word comes to mind, I try to be true and transparent as possible. In my life, being genuine and humanistic is important to me since I would want people to see how I really and not try to read. I have to be true myself in order to have a positive self-concept which needs a little tweaking. Nevertheless, I am more positive and opened about different people and situations I observe every day (1).

I have realized that everyone is not perfect, including me, but I can relate this personality of having a humanistic perspective since it sounds like the typical person I am. It somewhat defines the person I am. I am sure that the other perspectives from the textbook contribute to my personality as well. Although I can relate this perspective to my life and enjoyed reading about this very interesting subject, however, it is important that I am able to use this knowledge in my future career, in a relationship, and just in life general that will help be reach self-actualization.


  1. King, Laura A. The Science of Psychology.
Read On

Wanted: Guest Bloggers/Writers Search


It has been a week since I really written anything or updated the blog. Days are zooming by quickly. November is the newest month which means only a handful of weeks left before the semester ends. Do I hear a break coming? Thanksgiving will be here soon before we know it as well. Yummy food on that special, grateful day. I really have not been too motivated to write a blog post, but it is usually on my mind on what to blog about. "What do I want to write about that? What do I want you to read" are usually questions that comes to mind when I am sitting at my desk. Hopefully I can obtain answers for those questions.

I have decided open the blog for guest writers or blogggers. As normal, their work appear on the blog and gives them an opportunity to help gain them readers and to help my from losing hits and subscribers in order to keep up the pace of the weekly posts. With this said, I am on the hunt for guest bloggers or writers. You can shoot me an e-mail or instant message and we can begin to communicate.

Read On