Synchroblog: The Season of Christmas

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It is a new month and one great holiday has passed and our thanks have been given to others. Now it is time to enter winter wonderland for the season of love, family, more giving presents, and the time of snow and just a good time in life. We all have good memories and other times they are not so great. We may end up thinking about those children who need presents but unable to receive them because of a tragic event in their lives. Often we think of Santa Clause, snow, the classic movies, and the cold wintry being associated with this season. To this end, it is the time of given, especially to the Salvation Army the donation bucket is sitting outside the shopping malls and the bells being shaken. With this said, this lead us to this month's topic. . .

"The Season of Christmas"

Have favorite memory of any pastimes spending Christmas with the family? Want to give expressions or remarks about the season known to children for Santa Claus? Think about spending a day, or vacation or, special moments with family and friends. Think about the 25th day known as a tradition of being able to give unto others and not worry about receiving gifts back. You should talk about the season of Christmas. Whatever your heart desires, think carefully on what you think the meaning of Christmas is all about. Why is special about the winter time? Is there anything special about December besides just Christmas? It is up to you to talk about whatever you like about in any direction you want.



Guidelines:
  • The time will be Decemeber 9-16, 2008. This allows you to post on any chosen day.
  • In each post you should link up to other participants/posts. This allows your readers to know who else is participating in the Sychroblogging.
  • Though this may involved with college bloggers, anyone is welcome and able to join in the fun as well.
  • Be sure to invite two more people to join the Synchroblogging.
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Book Review: "Stressed Out Students’ Guide to Handling Peer Pressure"

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This helpful student guide to handle peer pressure turns out to be a book that is easy to read and understand. The Stressed Out Student's Guide to Handling Peer Pressure is helpful for both parents and children because it is provides plenty of good information arranging from not worrying about stressing out when a student is trying to fit with the "in crowd" to reaching out to the youth on why alcohol is not a cool liquid to drink. I recommend any parent who has a teenager to buy this book to read and for any teenager to read the book for him or herself. The author Dr. Lisa Medoff, PhD is a child psychologist and column writer who understands the how peer pressure affects a young person's life through the temptations of sex, using drugs, stealing, and making fake identification cards.

This book is filled with illustrations , quotes from different students, parents, educators, and real world facts about the different issues of today's modern teenager. Within the pages of the book, you will find different tips and websites that will point you in the right direction for credible information about sex and health issues. I think you should read this book because you are going to learn something that you can share with family and friends. There is nothing like reading a book that will educate our young people. I find this book to be really helpful and awesome to read. Dr. Medoff gets straight to the point on heavy subjects without beating around the bush and without writing the book in a "lecture" format.

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Schizophrenia

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A common psychological disorder that causes people to have a very high thought process is called schizophrenia. If someone has this disorder, they would be noticed as schizophrenics. While those without the disorder may face the reality of the word, others schizophrenia will be in their own little word trying to find out the meaning of certain events or they just may be a little frightened. There is a 1.1 percent of young adults eighteen years and older that may have schizophrenia. In order to overcome this “split mind” of any such person and to help gain their sense of disordered life, you must know the symptoms of schizophrenia (1)***. To briefly discuss the symptoms of schizophrenia, they are generally classified as positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive deficits. Positive symptoms are when people have that sense of reality with a little bit of their own world as their psychological behavior. The symptoms are not really supposed to be there in their daily behaviors. Such symptoms are hallucinations when the sense of the real world nowhere near their human thought process. If a person is experience hallucinations, they may be hearing voices that the normal people are not hearing. They could also see things that may not exist to the eyes of other people. Negative symptoms are those signs of decreased or lost of normal functions. People with this classification of negative symptoms do not have any facial expressions and emotions. These are characteristics that normal people have that they are missing. This could be known as the flat affect where people show no emotions and unable to maintain facial expressions. Someone who fits this description may not show the expression of laughing a funny joke is told or they may show that they are mad. Lastly, cognitive symptoms deals with the way of thinking and the ability to hold use their memory systems and make reasonable decisions. (1, 2)***.

There are four types of schizophrenia: disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, and undifferentiated. The first type of schizophrenia is disorganized. When people have this type of disorder, they have an unclear thought process of seeing imaginary things with inability to find meaning in what may be doing on around them. All of the person’s emotions are shaken up into a mixture of different behaviors. Someone could say this person is going crazy if they laughed while the light turns green or if they act childish at an adulthood age. Also, the disorganized schizophrenia can be caused by isolation as the person grew up during the teenager stages. The next type deals with the crazy movements and the inability to control their motor skills; including to not having the full control of what they say since they could be repeating what is being said over and over. People at this level may need a stay-at-home nurse since they may not be able to take care of themselves; especially they are outside of the home. If someone is acting a little bit beyond normal and they are having delusion that may not be true, then that person has paranoid schizophrenia. They may have the delusion that a certain event can be a message that is about their lives or people are plotting to kill them. This call goes against their beliefs and religious views since they have the thought disorder of being the opposite of normal (1)***. The fourth type of schizophrenia is undifferentiated. When someone has this type of schizophrenia, they may not have a couple of characteristics or description of the other types, but they have the symptoms of disorganized behavior, seeing things, having delusions, or any other type of schizophrenia. People of this nature are in a category of their own. (1, 3)***.

There are many different causes of schizophrenia whether they are biological factors or dealing with the mind, and environment. In a biological aspect, those who may have direct relations with someone who already has schizophrenia will most likely have a ten percent chance of getting this disorder where as the general population is one percent. It is rare for someone to attract themselves to schizophrenia since you can not be exposed to it nor pass it on too others, but genetics help influence the disorder to be involved. If a woman is pregnant and is having a baby, stress can raise the hormone cortisol and later in the development of babies can be a cause of this disorder. It is very interesting to see that identical twins have a higher rate of developing schizophrenia. Low oxygen level at birth, exposure to a virus, and sexual abuse can also be leading causes of schizophrenia. The regulation of neurotransmitters can also help the development of this rare disorder since the brain can get too much of dopamine and the lack of glutamate is being released into the body (4)***.

Schizophrenia is treated with different medicines and therapy treatment that meets the patient’s needs. However, to help treat the psychological disordered minded patients there are antipsychotic meds that reduces people from hallucinations, thinking in a way where they could be stalked because of their twisted mind, and help them to become more social. Along with the efforts to take the medicines to treat schizophrenia, there are some side effects such as dry mouth, dizziness, muscle spasm, and abnormal body movements. Psychotherapy helps with patients who are not emotionally stable. If a patient gets treated medicine it is to help control their behavior and lower the schizophrenic symptoms. Not only these affected people have individual sessions with a professional, they can also attend sessions with psychologists and other similar people, schizophrenic people will be able to share their stories and have discussions to help them become more social and gain the skills to act like a normal person. Any type of support group should be recommended in order to keep the person under controlled conditions and “normal” functions (5)***. If the person with schizophrenia gets too crazy and beyond their state of mind, they may get need to check into the hospital for safety reasons and if that does not work, maybe they need to be put into an asylum for those who are paranoid and have delusions. With all of this in mind, the medicines taken help to bring the unbalanced chemicals to a stable stage and psychotherapy helps to treat those with this psychological disorder (6)***.

Sources:

  1. King, Laura A. The Science of Psychology.
  2. http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=By_Illness&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=7416
  3. http://www.webmd.com/schizophrenia/guide/schizophrenia-types
  4. http://www.helpguide.org/mental/schizophrenia_symptom.htm
  5. http://hcpc.uth.tmc.edu/schizophrenia.htm
  6. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000928.htm#Treatment
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Major Depressive Disorder

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One of the classifications of the depressive disorder is called Major Depressive Disorder or MDD. This type of depression deals with an individual’s emotions, behaviors, and somatic disturbance. However, in most cases, depressed people can overcome their disorder whereas someone with the major depressive disorder can have an episode for at least two weeks and maybe longer. Some of the symptoms of major depressive disorder are the reduce time or energy to activities that are typical done, trouble having sleep at night, feeling doubtful about yourself and worthless, thoughts of harming oneself and suicidal thoughts, just generally being in a depressed mood. Sometimes the case could be the sadness of a close relative that has died in the family (1)***.

There is a link between depression and heredity because people with family members who are depressed or have this disorder are mostly likely to have a greater risk of developing it themselves. This is possible because often there may be a parent who is suffering with any mood disorder and it could be passed down to his or her child. People with bipolar will also have a much increased risk of it being heredity in their families; especially in identical twins (1, 2)***. One aspect of neurobiological abnormality that is found with people who have MDD is the issue of sleeping and brain activity. These people with this problem of sleeping tend to go to sleep at an earlier time than those who are not depressed. This is caused by the feeing of being a slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement that deals with decreased activity in the brain as they cycle through the depressive phrases (1, 6)***. Also, neuron death and disability is another abnormality because individuals who are depressed how fewer neurons in the prefrontal cortex that improperly send signals to the amygdale.

Within the socio-cultural factors of MDD deals with the proximal and distal interpersonal relationships that will bring back memories to someone who may be predispose to MDD. Those experiences and memories can cause the person to be sad most of any day or just down in the dumps. If a family is living in a lower class or in poverty, that can also be a factor of depression since that family may have to live in a neighborhood of violence, hopelessness, and alcohol (1)***. Women will mostly likely develop depression than men because they may be married or single raising children on their own and have jobs that do be the best responsibility they want. It is also proven that stressed out women will be depression. So there is a bit of gender difference when it comes down to who will be depressed or may end up being exposed to others who are depressed through personal experiences and marriages (3)***.

With all the research and reading of the textbook, I would probably tell a friend that get self help by starting to overcome depression by doing the opposite of the typical symptoms and kind of get out and be a little more social. This is also known as intervention before the depressive emotions get to the state of being suicidal thoughts. A good resource can be attending support groups and psychotherapy will help since it allows the person to gain more social skills and recreate healthy relationships with other people (6)***. Also, doctor offices and health clinics will have brochures that will give information on MDD and how to prevent it. I would also tell my friend tell consequences (or use scar tactics in order for him or her to seek help) of MDD if there is no intentions of wanting to get self help (6)***. Such consequences as drug abuse, being moody or sad all the time, and death by killing self. I could also give my friend advice that can help him or her from preventing MDD going beyond extreme measures. Such advice that can be given is doing activities that will lower stress, go for walks to clear the mind of any sad experiences or deaths of family members, maintaining good eating habits since the mood disorder will factor into weight loss (4)***.

There are several common treatments for any depressive person. From research combined treatment of psychotherapy and medicine can help with the treatment of this mood disorder because it is very effective. Another treatment method is psychotherapy alone because it helps people refocus on building interpersonal relationships with pro-active activities between sessions because it helps with benefits that are gained from sessions with the therapist and the client. Hospital treatment comes to play when the person starts to think about death and suicide and antidepressants are given until the patient is recovered back to normal conditions. This type of treatment also deals with sessions with professional health officials and making sure the patient is able to stay alone without any safety concerns. (5)***.

Sources:

  1. King, Laura. The Science of Psychology.
  2. http://www.allaboutdepression.com/cau_01.html
  3. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression/complete-publication.shtml#pub6
  4. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/MEDLINEPLUS/ency/article/000945.htm#Treatment
  5. http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/depression-treatment?pp=4
  6. http://www.minddisorders.com/Kau-Nu/Major-depressive-disorder.html
  7. http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/depression-treatment?pp=1#psych
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20SB Blog Swap 3

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20SB Blog Swap 3 Todays guest post is brought to you by Nuttycow from Parlez-vous moo? This is all part of the 20 Something Bloggers "Blog Swap 3". Don't forget to go check out my post over at Parlez-vous moo?

 

 

 

 

Nuttycow's rules on how to write good.

George Orwell had six rules for effective writing.

· Never use a metaphor, simile or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.

· Never use a long word where a short one will do.

· If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.

· Never use the passive where you can use the active.

· Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.

· Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.

For me, the last rule is the most important. Rules, as they say, are made to be broken (she says, breaking rule number one). Far better to write naturally and fluidly, getting your story across, than stick rigidly to a set of commandments. Please bare this in mind when reading the rest of this post…

Now, I know this subject has been written to death but hell, I should get the chance to share my £0.02 worth too (or, I suppose for American readers, my $0.02 worth).

Spelling: Spell cheque is their for a reason. Of course, it won’t catch all the spelling mistakes you might make, but it’s a start.

Grammar: If you’re not sure on the order of words, when to use “whom” and when to use “who”, look it up. Honestly, it’ll make your writing easier much to read.

Basic knowledge: Our or are? Your or you’re? Their or there? To, two or too? Its or it’s? Learn the difference and where they’re used. Please.

Write as you talk: Ok, this might seem an odd one. Generally, when people speak they don’t pay much attention to syntax, semantics and all of those good things. They just talk. They get the point across. And that’s what your writing should do too. People find it much easier to understand things when it’s not covered in a myriad of long words, sub clauses and waffle.

However… at the same time adopt an appropriate tone: If you’re writing your company’s annual report, conversational style might not be the best way forward. That is, unless your company is of the Google and Innocent mould.

Layout: Writing a long piece? Lay it out properly. This means paragraphs, bullet points, varying length of sentence. Honestly, it makes it a lot easier to read. Be kind to your reader (especially if you’re writing online)

Gobbledygook: Yes, the people you live with may well know that EBM means “Evil Bastard Man” and refers to your ex-boyfriend, your audience may not. Although you might just want to to touch base and talk about some blue sky thinking, everyone else will just think you’re weird. Speak English.

Long words: You may be a naturally verbose individual. You might feel long words somehow make you the eminence grise. However, your circumlocution and affectation for using long words just makes your reader feel a little stupid.

Know your readers: Who’s reading your writing? A 5 year old? A 50 year old? Someone who knows the subject matter as well as you do? Adjust your writing accordingly.

What about you? What do you think makes good writing?

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Thoughts from a Writer

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There should be people that can understand each other so we can make a difference, find true friends, and not feel like an outcast or a reject. Often we have the chance to be someone who can reach self-actualization. To understand each other it takes one to know one.

Would it be a pleasant world to live in if we were able to get what we want and need? Could we go a day just not worrying about those fake people, those people who want to be like someone else? What would the country be like in 10 years? How about 5 years? Stop. Think. Stop and think...

At the end of the day we all are different. We can only be humans and just live, enjoy, and make the best of life. You should take that little light of yours and let it Take that second to light another person's light that is not glowing. <u?Let's not contradict with each other, but rather come to the conclusion in order to disagree with other opposite views with respect. Stop. Think. Stop and think...

You are not going to reach self-actualization if you do not get to beyond the point of not reaching the goal of what you want in life. Again, take a second your light and shine it on someone else. They just may need it. Stop. Think. Stop and think...

Take the less taken road. That road that that everyone else has gone may not be the right one for you or you do not recognize the brick walls down that wall; so it is important to find the road less taken and go on adventure.

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Your Emotions Are Contagious

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Emotion is a very important aspect of the human being. Without emotion, how can a person be expressive? How can a person show feelings of sadness or excitement? We all show our emotion verbally and nonverbally. Our emotions and how we express them can influence others and be passed on as contagious emotions. With this in mind, the facial feedback hypothesis can be viewed as the facial emotions and how we reflect them to be interpreted to others. For example, when professional models have to do their photo shots they must show a precise emotion such a being happy with a big open, smile showing all the white pearls and dimples or they may be just laughing. You have to understand this because when people are actually being happy or acting all serious, that person can allow the other person to be the same way (1)***. If someone feels really sad and depressed often the other people around them can feel the same way. An example, of this is when the football played got killed and the day after the University opened back up, the campus felt really sad and dead. Students were not in class and the day was moving slow. I could actually feel the contagious emotion of this tragic event. If someone is feeling happy and hyper, then they can pass that emotion on while they are having leisure time with his or her friends. Gender influence the meaning of contagious emotions because society has a set standard that males are to act like one way and females are most likely to pass on to females; possibly males as well. Stereotypical people have certain expectations of how gender affects the behavior of humans (1)***.

From research, those who are really hyper and bouncing all off the wall (or just happy) will most likely to pass on that feeling to someone else because they will tell the others how they feel and make the other person be the same way as well. Along the same lines, people who are depressed and tell an emotional story can cause that feeling to fall one someone else (2)***. When people are having conversations with each other, their feeling, especially facial expressions, are being mimic at every second with no regards of consciously thinking. This deal with in instinct of reacting emotionally whether one is sad or happy. This is evidence that emotions can be contagious and be passed on to others (1, 3)***. This can happen to students in the classroom between the students and teachers since they do know each other. The classroom may not be a healthy place to learn if there is violence or angry students throughout the class (6)***. In therapy, you are speaking with the psychologist or doctor to get help so the mood of the happy psychologist or doctor will be passed onto their patient because they are there to help them with whatever problems they may have and not make things worse. Also, if the doctor is serious and tensed, then the patient will feel that vibe and be nervous or scared because the doctor is not too friendly.

To talk about the contagious emotions in the workplace, by the workers bringing their moods and feelings from home to the workplace and not being considering to keep the atmosphere positive. Furthermore, if a person has a boss that is generally happy and positive on the job and making sure all the employees are doing their job correctly and satisfying the customers and the next day he appears to be to have a look on his face as if something is bothering him, then one of the workers will mostly likely respond to his facial expression. In other words, his concerned, worried look will cause another coworker to be concerned too since the boss is usually happy, and excited to be at work; instead the bad news of having to lay off some of the employees is the main concern will lead to a contagious emotion go spread. (4)***. Another instance is when a coworker, student, or anyone wakes up on the wrong side of the bed and bring their angry to the normal working environment and everyone noticed. When asked what is wrong, the angry person will start yelling because he or she does not want to be bothered. When this happens everyone else will be angry to because they were yelled at for someone else bringing personal problems to the working environment instead of having a positive attitude and not be a negative person for that day. This will have a cause and effect situation with everyone since the angry emotion was passed on from one person to the next (5, 7)***.

With the knowledge that emotions are contagious can could influence others to be the same way as we are feeling, I think that there can be a difference shown in others if we lead with a positive outlook or we have an positive attitude towards different experiences. Leading with a positive attitude can also help those who may feel sad when a tragic event happens. If you come visit them at their house or get them out the house and having fun, then you will respond emotionally to what they are feeling at the present moment (8)***. Also, in the future, it is important to mange and control my emotions rather let the emotions control me. In other words, instead of allowing someone else feels one way while I am in a happier mood, I could stop and know that they could be manipulating me to feel the same way as you. They could trying to push how they feel about a situation on me rather me having my own emotionally reaction to situation from another perspective (8)***. This can also mean that I will understand concept of display rules that relates to how I am suppose to expressed my emotion during the when, where, and how during a given situation. This could also mean that I can catch another person’s emotion by allowing them to set the mood or do something that will make me feel the same way (1)***. The understanding of contagious emotions and different situations, and every day conversations when they occur, they can an affect one me and as well as everyone else.

Sources:

  1. King, Laura. The Science of Psychology.***
  2. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE6D91131F936A25753C1A967958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=1***
  3. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/05/29/AR2006052900757.html***
  4. http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=1708***
  5. http://www.cpa2biz.com/Content/media/PRODUCER_CONTENT/Newsletters/Articles_2007/CPA/Office_Moods.jsp***
  6. http://eqi.org/steps.htm***
  7. http://www.newdirectionsconsulting.com/pdfs/EmotionalIntelligence.pdf***
  8. http://www.bus.umich.edu/FacultyResearch/Research/TryingTimes/PositiveEmotions.htm***
  9. http://www.aces.uiuc.edu/news/stories/news4087.html***
Read On

Issues in Education

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In my Oral Communication class we have to give speeches on any chosen topic. I decided to keep the issue of education from English Composition 1020 class and present speeches informing, persuading and calling of actions to help change the the difficulties we are having currently in the education field. With this said, I am sharing you what I believe are some issues that should be changed in the American school system. You may agree or disagree with me, but nevertheless, we should take a step up to provide ever student a quality education like in the past (maybe even before No Child Left Behind). Below you will find different notes on different issues in education that are current happening somewhere across the country. I am sure that we all need to be ware of the education system whether it does not pertain to us, but it does to your children, nieces, nephews, and cousins, and everyone else.

SCHOOL ASSESSMENT

  • Education is like a button on a coat; we all need it to help us in any field of studies and even the workplace.
  • Improving education is important because we all should meet the standards of providing the best education possible future citizens of today’s society in America.
  • When researching background information on school assessment and where it branched out, I found out that during the 1930’s, the College Entrance Examination Board created the SAT test. The SAT was the first, single test for college admission.
  • During the 19th century, teachers were interviewed by board members and a member from the church on order to make sure none of the students showed any immoral conventional views or beliefs of their religion (Ravitch).
  • The idea of “teaching to the test” is cheats the students out of their free education by teaching directly to a curriculum that will help the student past rather than allowing them to have the knowledge of different educational ideas and methods (Jamie McKenzie).
  • I agree with Linda Bond, director of North Central Regional Educational Laboratory that we should use standardized effectively to promote the learning abilities from outside the classroom to workplace and beyond.

NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND

  • Robert Lynch, president and CEO of Americans for the Arts, really does a good job saying that “reading and math, while essential, are simply not enough.
  • A better American school system is the way to go in order to produce successful citizens and to get them out of poverty.
  • An increase of the debate NCLB can cause students to dropout of school before graduating because they are pressured to make the school have higher scores and which reduces the time to allow the teacher instruct the class.
  • Tests get in the way of actual teaching, schools losing future teachers, and the “work like a robot” effect is in place and they are able to do the best they can.

SCHOOL SAFETY

  • Many schools across the nation and including in Memphis are filled with violent students and putting everyone, including the teachers at risk.
  • The National Education Association documents that there are problems at home such as children feeling guilty for the situations in the household and students who are being bullies to their peers. (NEA, 2008).
  • Focusing on issues of school assessment, the NCLB Act, and school safety will ensure students that we are working to provide them with the education they can possibly receive in this country.
  • The professor and psychologist Dr. Lisa Medoff formulates in her book that students are faced with peer pressure that cause them to misbehave, do drugs, and ditch school.
  • Violence can also happen when students are bullied, feel unsafe, and take matters into their own hands

----------------

References

  1. Lynch, Robert L. “No Child Left Behind Act Wrongly Left the Arts Behind.” http://thehill.com. February 2008.
  2. Stiggins, Richard J. “Assessment, Student Confidence, and School Success.” Kappan Professional Journal. November 1999: pgs. 191-198. Vol. 88.
  3. Ravitch, Diane. “A Brief History of Testing and Accountability.” Hoover Digest. Hoover Institution. http://www.hoover.org/publication/digest/4495866.html
  4. National Education Assoication, "Safe School Manual: A Resource on Making Schools, Communities, and Families Safe for Children.” 2008 25 Sep 2008 http://www.nea.org/schoolsafety/images/ssm05-background.pdf.
  5. McKenzie, Jamie. "Killing NCLB in 2007." The September Issue of No Child Left Vol. IV No. 8. 09 2006 23 Oct 2008 http://nochildleft.com/2006/sept06killing.html#Reduction%20in%20Time%20for%20Learning.
  6. Bond, Linda. "Critical Issue: Rethinking Assessment and Its Role in Supporting Educational Reform ." North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (1995) 23 Oct 2008 http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/methods/assment/as700.htm.
  7. Medoff, Lisa. Stressed Out Students. New York, NY: Kaplan Publshing, 2008.
Read On

My Humanistic Perspective

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The humanistic perspective continues to evolve around the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the positive aspect of human personality. When people have this type of perspective, they are aware how people perceive themselves and the world as well. Though this perspective may focus on, the optimistic side of human behavior, observation occurs to show that the personality develops from motivation to grow and actualize our selves. I decided to choose this perspective because it focuses on the understanding of our freedom of choice, personal growth, and individual abilities to deal with stress or meeting our desires and get a better understanding of ourselves (1). Furthermore, with the understanding of personal growth, freedom to make our own decisions, and just the way we handle the pessimistic view of life and conflict can help us understand the humanistic perspective (2). Choosing this perspective is a valuable aspect since it helps define our personality, social behavior, a way of thinking, the presence of both a good or bad vibe (spirit), and self-awareness (3). Self-actualization can help define our personality since it allows of thinking, being creative, showing our emotions, interaction with others, and overcoming the brick wall (1). This is what the humanistic perspective is all about how it deals with personality.

We all know about Maslow and his approach of self-actualization and the basic needs that we have to meet and will lead us to success. With this in mind, humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers (1902-1987) believes that people were born with a conscious that allows them to make the right choices in life. People are suppose to be show their true selves by realizing their genuine feelings rather than according to societal standards (1). The theory of self-concept is what Rogers concluded as an approach for a humanistic perspective. Self-concept deals with an individual’s overall view of their selves and their abilities to assess human behaviors. Rogers’ approach is that people are not acceptable with their true self. In other words we want to reflect ourselves to be someone we are not in order to have a higher condition of worth. The higher our image is to ourselves and others, the more congruent we are in order to find our real self, worry less about others, and our experiences will be more positive (4). Self-concept relates to the level of someone’s self-esteem; whether it is low, medium, or high, it relates to the concept of a person understand his or self’s personality and perspective (5).

Now that I have read and research about the humanistic perspective and the theory from both Maslow and Rogers, I find it interesting how I can relate to this perspective because in some form I have believe to have this sense of style or thinking that I use in my life. This all seem so complicated with the different perspectives and the different theories of personality. Along with the subject of hierarchy of needs, self-actualization, and self-concept, there are three methods that Rogers proposed to help a person to form a better positive self-concept if they have some negatives in their life: unconditional positive regard, empathy, and genuineness (1). I can relate and analyze myself to these psychological aspects. As an overview, when I am approached by someone that is negative or bring up a topic that could lead into an argument, I try my best to use my beliefs of the humanistic perspective, to sort of push my thinking to change what they may believe to positive. I am a person of positive and I try to meet all needs to reach self-actualization and have the theme of self-concept. I am aware of my personality and the type of person I am. I generally stand out and according to Rogers, asses my abilities to where I am happy and not to be aligned with the stereotype of society. I am reaching self-actualization for myself and not for others (6). I believe that I have the personality of unconditional positive regard because I am open to hearing other people’s opinions and believes and acceptable of them though I may not get along with them or we may have opposite views on any given topic. I usually am accepting to others even if they have an inappropriate behavior; however, I kind of steer away from those types of people to help from more positive self-concept (1, 7).

The next method or characteristic of a positive self-concept is empathy. I am no a perfect person and usually centered about me and usually do not think of others in certain situations. This has happen a few times in my life. Depending on a person’s age and how often I talk to them or in certain situations, I will show empathy because I could understand their perspective versus mine and relate to how they feel. Often, I can not put myself in other people’s shoes per se; however, I am able to listen and help guide a person to a positive image; to make them feel wanted (8). The third method or characteristic is, genuine. When this word comes to mind, I try to be true and transparent as possible. In my life, being genuine and humanistic is important to me since I would want people to see how I really and not try to read. I have to be true myself in order to have a positive self-concept which needs a little tweaking. Nevertheless, I am more positive and opened about different people and situations I observe every day (1).

I have realized that everyone is not perfect, including me, but I can relate this personality of having a humanistic perspective since it sounds like the typical person I am. It somewhat defines the person I am. I am sure that the other perspectives from the textbook contribute to my personality as well. Although I can relate this perspective to my life and enjoyed reading about this very interesting subject, however, it is important that I am able to use this knowledge in my future career, in a relationship, and just in life general that will help be reach self-actualization.

Sources

  1. King, Laura A. The Science of Psychology.
  2. http://cranepsych.com/Psych/Humanistic.html
  3. http://www.ahpweb.org/aboutahp/whatis.html
  4. http://cranepsych.com/Psych/Carl_Rogers_overview.pdf
  5. http://www.more-selfesteem.com/self_concept.htm
  6. http://novaonline.nv.cc.va.us/eli/spd110td/interper/self/self.html
  7. http://counsellingresource.com/types/person-centred/index.html
  8. http://xnet.kp.org/permanentejournal/fall03/cpc.html
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Wanted: Guest Bloggers/Writers Search

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It has been a week since I really written anything or updated the blog. Days are zooming by quickly. November is the newest month which means only a handful of weeks left before the semester ends. Do I hear a break coming? Thanksgiving will be here soon before we know it as well. Yummy food on that special, grateful day. I really have not been too motivated to write a blog post, but it is usually on my mind on what to blog about. "What do I want to write about that? What do I want you to read" are usually questions that comes to mind when I am sitting at my desk. Hopefully I can obtain answers for those questions.

I have decided open the blog for guest writers or blogggers. As normal, their work appear on the blog and gives them an opportunity to help gain them readers and to help my from losing hits and subscribers in order to keep up the pace of the weekly posts. With this said, I am on the hunt for guest bloggers or writers. You can shoot me an e-mail or instant message and we can begin to communicate.

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Thank You for the Synchroblog 2

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Thank you everyone who has joined in with the synchroblog and made it much better than than last month. All the posts that were written had their uniqueness and expressed everyone in his or her own way. Hopefully, you have gotten to see what makes every feel happy from hanging out with best friends to arts and music and even spending quality time with the family. It shows that everyone knows how to have fun and create a sense of the good Samaritan in each person. Again, thanks for helping out and participating. The more the merrier, the happier we will be. This time next month, look out for the next topic. Who knows what you may have to write about. Without YOU this could once a month "event" would not been possible. Now pat yourselves on the back!

Below you will find other bloggers who has participated in this month's synchroblog:

Until next time....!

Read On

Language and Speech Disorder: Dyslexia

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Dyslexia is when a person has the disadvantage of not being able to read and understand language as a normal person. Although they may act normal and do every day activities, but when it is required to read a text will have difficulties reading the words and sentences and may be comprehend fully what they read (1)***. Dyslexia does not just deal with reading skills, but it is also associated with a person’s intellectual concepts of writing, speaking, and processing information for understanding. Often, children will be teased in the classroom if their peers find out they can not read or they are a slower reader. This is a common learning disability that can be treated and progress to a better level if action is taken an earlier development stages (2)***.

A problem that coexists with dyslexia is the ability to not allowing a person to understand written or spoken language. The basic language sound system is phonemes. The letters and the way they sound when they are spoken together will be a challenge for the person who is trying to read a certain writing piece or any given text. The issue of pronouncing words and trouble with the phonics to sound out words will occur (3)***. Another problem is not being able to solve human functions such as creating a strategic plan, processing and retaining information. Often, with the mention of memory, the occurrences of forgetting how to sound out certain letters and words will happen. For example, a child could forget to say word with more than five letters or if they were to write down the word as the teacher recite them to the class, the student will repeat the word and write it down as they hear their understanding of how the word is pronounce in order to spell it on paper (4)***.

To further explain the disorder to expand the knowledge of a college student, he or she must know that the dyslexic person is having trouble understanding directions from a book and they are book and being misunderstood to produce whatever is given in the book or to read for a class assignment. Also if words and sentences begin to sound funny coming out of the person’s mouth and they are not speaking “English,” then that should be a sign. If some verbs or missing words are left out, then you know the person may not be dumb, but need help with their reading and language skills no matter how old they are; they need help (2)***. As a big effect, especially in children, their self-esteem may decrease once they have made it known to the other peers that they can not read or understand on a normal level. When a dyslexic person become emotional unstable, then you will know that there is something wrong and because they are able to use the talents they possess in another areas of life except for the fact of reading comprehension. They will fear not to continue to read out loud or to themselves, but to give up and become a failure (3, 5)***. Common symptoms for someone who may be dyslexic is the way they are really involved with arts and crafts, sports, building different things, having trouble staying focus and daydreaming (being in a totally different world). The sings of a person gets confused while reading and getting their letters, numbers, and having trouble with reading and speaking language will lead to a doctor to diagnose that someone is dyslexic. They may also have issues with hearing words and sentences and the ability to put them in correct order without stuttering or mispronouncing syllables. I do not exactly how behavior can be connected with dyslexia, but a misbehaving elementary student will be a class clown, get into trouble, disruptive behavior, if they had late development as they were younger, if they were affected in emotional settings whether at home or in the classroom (6)***.

If a person has dyslexia, the treatment option that could be offered is the act of taking training classes or specialized classes that will help target the individual’s needs that show weakness (1)***. If the person is a child in school, they will have to be evaluated to determine the exact problem. Future more, the results of the evaluation will allow the teachers or school officials find out if they have to be placed in special education classes in order to get help with their learning disability or just be in regular classes, but extra time or more advantages than their peers. There are a couple of methods such as the Slingerland Method, the Orton-Gillingham Method, and Project READ that can be used in order to test and allow the child to use their different senses to help build up the weakness that they may have (2)***. Most importantly, the Americans with Disabilities Act allows those dyslexic children to have legal help that will accommodate them in school by allowing them to change from school to another that will better suit them and allowing them to have extra inside and outside class time to complete daily assignments (5)***. It appears that there is not exact medicine or proper treatment for those who may have dyslexia; however, research shows that the continuation of the above methods and strategies will measure by a psychologist who will perform different tests in order to find the right method and recommendation that will help the particular patient. As placing students in special education classes will help the person with dyslexia, speech therapy, and even small group activities will help treat a dyslexic person since they will be able to work with other who have similar problems and they are able to learn from each other (7)***.

The long-term prognosis affects different people on different ranges and variables from mild to severe dyslexia since there are not any exact results or data to be studied. With this said, if dyslexia is treated an early stage such as childhood, then it is most likely they will keep learning and make good progress than being at the disadvantages of not understanding written language properly. A strong, supportive family can be helpful since they are willingly to help the dyslexic person to build up his or her reading skills to perform better in school and every day life. This is a good thing, in fact, since you will do not see anything uncommon that is negative from people with this disability (1)***. If the child is treated or receives any type of help, whether they are dyslexic or just general troublesome problems in school, it is best to help them out an early age because they will build up the foundation of learning and reading and being able to learn it easier than trying to learn at an older age (8)***.

Sources:

  1. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/dyslexia/dyslexia.htm***
  2. http://www.medicinenet.com/dyslexia/article.htm***
  3. http://kidshealth.org/teen/school_jobs/school/dyslexia.html***
  4. http://health.yahoo.com/children-resources/other-conditions-associated-with-dyslexia/healthwise--te7252.html***
  5. http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/learning/dyslexia.html***
  6. http://www.dyslexia.com/library/symptoms.htm***
  7. http://www.healthscout.com/ency/68/267/main.html#TreatmentofDyslexia***
  8. http://www.growingkids.co.uk/Dyslexia.html***
Read On

Mentally Challenged People

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Intelligent people are living throughout the world. Intelligent people are able to support themselves, think logically, and have the ability to reason. The important aspect of their life is to adapt to their daily lifestyle or any drastic change. Most people are born to highly intelligent. Others are born with and cope with the ability to have the skills of being a talented musician or a star athlete. However, with this in mind, there are a few people who are not on the higher scale of intelligence and having the normal life of self-supporting structures in life. The intelligence quotient (IQ) test measures a person’s abilities to think, reason, and level of understanding. The scores that are below 70 will result in the person being known to have the condition of not being the average Joe. The average score on an IQ test is in the range of 90 to 110. Mental retardation, or MR, is a condition that anyone with below the given score is not able to neither adapt to life nor have the ability to have the mental ability live a normal life (1)***. With this in mind, people with this type of disability are discovered during the stages of development though the age of eighteen. It does not matter what background you are, racial aspects, and education it could occur to anyone (1, 2)***. Mental retardation can also be defined as the incompetence to meet a standardized school test and the effortless ability to want to learn. This will mostly likely occur in elementary children at an earlier age (3)***. This special disability can deal with the youth and their way of going through the human development stages.

I will say that one main criteria used to diagnose mental retardation is going to be the intelligence quotient (IQ) test. In the textbook, it gives a breakdown of different IQs classifications according to the scores of the test. This type of test is called a psychological since test since it allows psychologists to check people for any disabilities or any other body conditions (4)***. The result will show if the person is below the average with any incompatible cognitive and adaptive skills. Often the cases, mental retardation will be diagnosed as a development delay and nothing else beyond those conditions (5)***. Mental retardation can also occur within the family depending on the family history and if anyone else is in this type of condition of being retarded. After a person is diagnosed with being retarded, the results must be put on a scale of how severe the disability may be and this will be different from person to person. The American Association on Mental Retardation does is not based on IQ test scores, but on the level of support for individuals to ensure the best way to help their patients and get them treated properly. They use the four supporting degrees of intermittent, limited, extensive, and pervasive (1, 6)***.

To get straight to the point, schools and other common places will measure or categorize the severity along the lines of mild to moderate and sever to profound. If a person has a mild condition of mental retardation the IQ score will range from 50-69. The weaknesses and the ability to not being able to do everything like being independent and going on with daily life will be noticed able in people with a mild condition of retardation. In children, some reading and writing would be a concern in school; however, this may be the case for other students as well. Adults will be able to manage life on their own and still be independent, but when they do everything, it may be at a slower rate than others. A small affect on speech can be noticeable as well with those who could be diagnosed with retardation. The next degree of retardation is at the moderate level. The person who may have a moderate degree of disability could probably have the IQ score between 35 and 49. At this stage, the person may have the ability to perform simple skills whether or not they are good at what they are doing. When you see a person who may be retarded or diagnosed to be that way, the appearance is not visible, but the social and speech skills will be noticed. This has to do with the inability to not being able to talk with every day people and understand what they are saying. Miscommunication could occur in a conversation or from one person to the next giving the task of directions to completing something. A person who will show a strong sign of being very mental retarded will have a score of 20-34 and this will be at the severe degree. These types of people will have a genetic disorder or down syndrome that deals with the tissues in their body (1)***. People will not be able to comprehend or understand what is going on around them. If the person may be an adult, they will be sent to a group home to live with others. There will be supervision by other adults that may work for a corporation such as Volunteer of America that will care and tend the people who are not able to think right and possible be handicapped in wheel chairs. They could also live with their own families if they want to care for the person who may be sick or unable to live without support (2)***. The last level or degree of retardation is profound. The IQ ranges from 20 and below. Contest care is the key to people in this condition of mental retardation. In simple terms, adults and it could be children as well, are mobilized, the need the help others to watch and care for them. They may be placed in group homes with people of similar conditions. There is really nothing else that can be done except to keep them living and continue working with them from day-to-day (2, 7)***.

There are many different causes of mental retardation; however, to name a few, one possible cause is complication that occurs during pregnancy. This affects the human development of the child and causes the brain to not fully form through the stages of life. For example, if a mother drinks alcohol or smokes, the baby will become retarded as it grows up. If this may be the case, the notice or appearance of not functioning normal or lacking the abilities to think, reason, or have a high intelligence level. The mother puts the baby at risk by doing rudely behavior and the baby may be at a risk of not being born or anything such as HIV infection and chromosome abnormalities. Also, stress to the head of the baby will lead to less oxygen to be provided during birth (8, 9)***. A second cause of someone being mentally challenged is getting diseases and lacking important nutrients for the body. Chicken pox and other diseases that the baby can get will affect the brain. For example, if the baby gets or measles will cause the baby to get meningitis. The inflammation of the membrane that covers the spinal cord gets infection by different bacteria that will lead to meningitis. This also damages the brain and can be treated an early stages with the side effects that will cause the baby to not grow and mature into a normal adult. A third reason that will cause a person to be retarded can be through biological genetic disorders. If one of the parents may have a disorder, the child can inherited it and error or a mix up with of genes can lead to complications. For example, down syndrome can occur within the child. Birth defects occur within the heart and hearing lost, different health related problems will help lead to mental retardation (8, 9)***.

Special education is given to those who may be mental retarded. They have to go through training classes to help improve social skills for them to function as a normal person.

Sources:

  1. King, Laura A. The Science of Psychology.***
  2. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761552226/Mental_Retardation.html#s1***
  3. http://www.psychologytoday.com/conditions/retardation.html***
  4. http://www.humanillnesses.com/Behavioral-Health-Sel-Vi/Testing-and-Evaluation.html***
  5. http://www.uab.edu/cogdev/mentreta.htm***
  6. http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=10349&cn=208***
  7. http://www.who.int/mental_health/media/en/69.pdf***
  8. http://www.wellesley.edu/Activities/homepage/bestbuddies/Buddies/mrAwareness.html***
  9. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/MEDLINEPLUS/ency/article/001523.htm***
  10. http://www.lpch.org/DiseaseHealthInfo/HealthLibrary/genetics/downs.html***
Read On

Synchroblog: I'm in a Good Mood When....

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Time sure flies. It is time to write about synchroblog post (number 2). This is a good topic. Usually I am in a good mood or sometimes there are certain things that will make happy or put me me in regular place. I do not know where to begin nor how to approach the subject. I'll "free style" this as thoughts come to mind.

- I'm happy and being myself when I am able to sit down and relax. I don't have to rush to complete a certain task; I can just take my time and put effort into the quality rather than the quantity.

- I'm usually in a good mood or being myself when I am able to listen to music. I am open to almost all types of music. I end up listening to the music videos during the mornings or pop on the radio to see the latest happenings around the city. Music relaxes me. Often, it is turned up loud when a favorite song is playing; other times, it is low where it allows to simulate the brain to think functionally and creative.

- I'm usually in a good mood when I am around family or spending time with them after not seeing them during the school week. I'm growing up at the speed of ... of ... a day! It is good to have good conversation with them and seeing them on the weekend. Often, too much time with them will send me overboard.

- I'm being myself when I eat. I enjoy eating and love food. Sometimes I just eat "too much." I mean who doesn't like to eat? Food gives off energy and fills the belly good enough to fall asleep once completing the task of eating a meal. So I'm being myself when I want to eat up everything I see.

- I'm in a good mood when I have done, if not all, but half of my homework. Having that feeling of lifting the burden off my shoulders feels great. It leaves time for social activities and time to be on the computer. Also, Time to coordinate the Synchroblog and this blog.

- I can not forget sleep. I have not been getting much sleep lately, so I usually am in a sluggish; nevertheless, I gear myself into being myself when the lack of sleep occurs. When I am fully rested or slept well, I'm usually in a good mood. A lack of sleep cause me to be on the downside.

I will say there are some a different ways I am being myself and other ways that keep me in a good mood. I have shared with you, not in great details, but a good foundation of understanding of what makes me happy.

Read On

Synchroblog 2

17 comments

Thank you everyone who has joined in with the synchroblog and made it much better than than last month. All the posts that were written had their uniqueness and expressed everyone in his or her own way. Hopefully, you have gotten to see what makes every feel happy from hanging out with best friends to arts and music and even spending quality time with the family. It shows that everyone knows how to have fun and create a sense of the good Samaritan in each person. Again, thanks for helping out and participating. The more the merrier, the happier we will be. This time next month, look out for the next topic. Who knows what you may have to write about. Without YOU this could once a month "event" would not been possible. Now pat yourselves on the back!

Below you will find other bloggers who has participated in this month's synchroblog:

Until next time....!

Read On

Memory and Success in College

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In this chapter of memory, I have learned (with great detail research and reading) a good understanding of memory and the different processes of retaining information. Furthermore, the sections of the chapter also gives an in depth look on encoding information, the process of storage the memories or information, the ability to retrieve memories, and failure of encoding involved in the process to retrieve memories (1).*** Although memory is a good concept of human development and the thinking process, it is highly important to use this understanding of memory to become a successful college student by memorizing any and all academic material.

There are many different ways a student could do to studying and retaining class material. Most strategies will work for all whereas others have found a particular favorite strategy that works best for them. Either way, the strategies all should help improve students in their academic performance. As long-term memory is sorted into different levels of theories, students should be able to organize the material they are learning by creating an outline. With this said, not just an outline that does not serve a purpose and use for jotting notes, but one with headings, keywords, and other details that is relevant to future tests or assignments. Properly creating an outline allows the student to study in an orderly manner (2).*** A student that uses this strategy will be active readers. People who may have the visual learning style may adapt to learning and studying by pictures, maps, diagrams, and printed notes. Also, they will be able to picture acronyms as a mnemonic to help them quickly remember. For example, they may want to remember the acronyms for the color spectrum or Great Lakes. Even creating a mental picture of what you are reading will help you better understand what you are studying. (3).*** Another good strategy that helps is not cramming the night before for a test, but study in advance study sessions alone or by yourself or with friends during a study session. With this in mind, these sessions will allow students to take an hour every other day for any given test and have a 10 minute break during the session. Also, instead of wasting the time, using the time available to create flash cards or take notes s and ask yourself questions as you read the textbook (4).***

To help increase academic performance, a student can recite what they have read or any class notes. This does not just mean going over what was read, but this strategy also includes asking yourself what you have read, closing your textbook in order to recite everything in your own words. Seeing what you read or have learned, being able to explain what you have learn to someone else, hearing yourself reciting, and writing what you read goes along with this strategy. In other words a student can use the reciting method of the SQ3R Reading Method (5).*** Lastly, the strategy of grouping items from a larger group (chunking or grouping) into smaller groups allows a person to remember the list or anything into short-term memory. A good example is a use of numbers, words, or letters. This technique works for those who may have short-term memory. It also works with remembering lists or different concepts under the same category (1).***

Each strategy that is listed in the paragraph above will help a student improve their performance in any college course and it also allows them to help process information through the memory system. A person must encode the information before it is stored into short-term, working term, or long-term memory, and then the information has to be retrieved out of the memory system. To better understand how each listed strategy will help improve a student’s memory process, the strategies must be reviewed in the order of the memory system. First, to improve the effort of encoding information students can form study sessions with either a group or alone. To this end, studying with a group or alone allows information to get into the storage of memory. The students are learning new knowledge to help support what they already know from previous years in school to allow the new information to sink into their mind. They are using their sensory memory to help them learn the material and reading everything they have in order to prepare to memorize it. Students must review information before they can memorize it (6).*** To help improve storage of memory, the next stage of the memory process, the strategies of reciting what you have read either out loud several times, writing it down on paper, or telling someone, chunking the information, and outlining helps students improve the storage memory system. The students that will find grouping information or reciting easier because retain information in the way they learn it. Also, they are having fun as they study to retain the information. By doing these strategies they are less likely to forget what they have learned because it is either stored for a short-term use or for long-term. Most important, they are and will be aware on how they study and memorize information. If the information is not stored in memory, they will have problems of remembering certain material learned in class for a test or pop quiz. If or when this does happen, poor scores will show how much they remembered and how they were able to chunk the information in order to visually map it out or able to recite certain information that may lead up to the elimination of wrong answers in order to find the right answer (7).***

Now that the information has been encoded and stored, in other to recall information from the storage of short-term and long-term memory, visualizing the information retained or learned will help students perform better in classes. This will help because they will recall the items at the beginning of the list and in the middle. Sometimes they will be prompted to retrieve because a certain memory is stored in one of the memory systems. Often they could have remembered or visually prompted to use their working memory in order recall information. From the context retained, they will retrieve the information in the order they have learned it and is able to repeat it to another person or write it on paper. Depending on their mood, they may also forget or increase their ability to recall stored memory (1).***

The ability for a student to use what they remember and their memory system, they will improve in academic studies and be successful students. Memory will be with us throughout life. Different strategies will work for different students in order for them to understand the multiple functions of memory and how it can be useful for them every day. From encoding, storage, and retrieve information, memory will always play a vital role.

Sources:

  1. King, Laura A. The Science of Psychology.***
  2. http://www.sdc.uwo.ca/learning/index.html?structure***
  3. http://www.accd.edu/sac/history/keller/ACCDitg/SSMT.htm***
  4. http://frank.mtsu.edu/~studskl/memprinc/disprac.html***
  5. http://www.studygs.net/texred2.htm***
  6. http://www.muskingum.edu/~cal/database/general/encoding.html***
  7. http://www.muskingum.edu/~cal/database/general/memory.html***
Read On

Alternatives to Punishment

2 comments

There are ways to punish a child if they misbehave. The child should not get spanked all the time for every little reason. Therefore, whether using positive parenting skills or finding alternatives for punishments, the child should get punishment and it should be used effectively. It is impossible to punish a child and then the child still misbehaves. This should be a clue to the parents to find other ways of punishing the child. To this end, without physical or emotional harm to the child is the best respect you should give the child. One way of going about an alternative is the parent allowing the child to have choices to make. Allowing them to make choices is teaching them to think and know what is right from wrong (1)***. For example if the child wants something different to eat for breakfast, the parent should not command the child to eat what they already have on their plate, but allow them to eat another morning meal. The parents may not like it if they were not given choices of what to eat; they would be highly upset. Throwing commands at the child is not going to help because you are throwing words at them and making their situation worse. This is not a war. Another way to not have corporal punishment or emotional results is to take the child out of the conflict that is unfolding around them. The child may question the parent to why he or she was removed, but the parent should be able to explain to their child what the conflict is and how it a bad influence (1)***. Instead of punishing the child, this one-on-one talk should help the child realize that there are other ways to handle a problem as the child grows older into adults.

When the parent feels like they need to use the belt or some other manageable object to physical punish the child, the child is at risk of having aggressive behavior. There is no reason to raise more bad people in this world than we have now. Beating the child too much can lead to child abuse. If the parent does not call it abusing their child, later the child will assume that they were abused if they are not physical punished correctly. Abusing the child is just wrong. Physical punishment can also lead to the child to fear the parents and be scared of them for the wrong reason. Children should fear their parents and not be scared of them. There is a difference. Along the same lines of physical punishment could work though there is an unhealthy side of this punishment, parents should avoid spanking the child (2, 9)***. However, positive child guidance can be used by the parents for the child instead of physical punishment. Too far often a child will have a parent who is neglectful, does not care about their child, and even will find the parents not wanting to be an actual parent to them; therefore, the parent should not be too strict and be like a military sergeant, but to use their authoritative skills (3, 8)***. A parent of this nature will be in the middle of the parenting style spectrum and knows what is best for the child.

There are some strategies that will help develop the child with respectful moral and an understanding of being a better person. These are alternatives that will be use to avoid physical punishment. It is good to punish the child, but in a more positive way and it is certainly effective if the child is taught at the age of understanding in order to avoid conflict and being spanked. For instance, parents can set clear and understandable rules. Rules will have loopholes, but it is better to make sure the child knows how to behave in the house and outside the house. Engaging in the child’s daily activities (asking them if you can join) if very helpful and allowing the child to know you care for them to stay out of trouble. Making sure they are learning character education such as being a trustworthy person and being responsible for their personal items and in every day life. If a situation appears to be leading in the wrong direction, the parent should grab their child out of the situation before it leads to violence or gets out of control. Most importantly, teaching the children how their actions and behavior will affect their peers at school, an elderly person, and in most cases even their siblings (4, 7)***.

To help parents understand how to disciple their children, there are a few principles that they must know. This is not only forming a healthy relationship, but to learning how to build a foundation on the principles of discipline (6)***. Though there are debates on how you should get spanked the child and vice versa, there are other ways to solve problems with the child’s behavior with going down the road of physical punishment. There are six principles that parents should consider using when they are going to punish or discipline their children for improper conduct whether be it at home or in the general public. As the first principle, not all negative consequences will help change the child’s behavior, but it will not have an immediate effect. Sometimes the parents will need to use reinforcement when they are going to punish their child. A good way is to punish them and take their toy away, but only give them a positive consequence, but yet teach them a lesson. All children have a favorite toy and if you take it away, the parent can allow them to have less amount of time to play with the toy than they usual do.

The second principle comes in play hen a parent reinforces punishment for the child positively, most likely as they grow older into adults they will learn and know that they should behave in the right way because it is what they are expected to do. In this case, they will not seem to be forced to behave in a certain way because they have been taught how to behave with moral values. At the stage of the third principle, a child has to suffer negative consequences; most likely they will get out of control since they did not do anything to cause them to get punished. For example, if they know that something happened and it is not their fault, they will continue to misbehave in order to get their way. They end up being aggressive and mean.

The fourth and fifth principle deals with positive reinforcement and positive systems. Time out for children will help control behavior in children because it is a positive system that will lead to the child to know not to behave in the way they did that caused them to get put into time out. This method and other positive systems should be used often effectively to teach the child positive values and know how to control their behavior. Lastly, as the sixth principle, the adult should use their firm voice, but still be kind to the child. Often it will take time to get the child to obey and understand what you are telling them. If a parent does not like the though efforts to allow the child to comply with them, then the last result is give them a negative punishment that will teach them a lesson to just go ahead take the punishment and it get over with for their own sake (5)***.

Sources:

  1. http://www.awareparenting.com/twenty.htm#up***
  2. http://www.awareparenting.com/spanking.htm***
  3. Laura, King A. The Science of Psychology.***
  4. http://extension.missouri.edu/xplor/hesguide/humanrel/gh6119.htm***
  5. http://web.wm.edu/ttac/articles/challenging/six.html?svr=www***
  6. http://www.adventuresinparenting.org/2008/02/26/the-foundation-of-discipline/***
  7. http://www.ebasedprevention.org/scenarios/positive-approaches-to-discipline***
  8. http://www.athealth.com/Practitioner/ceduc/parentingstyles.html***
  9. http://www.asfar.org/papers/corpun.php***
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Blog-o-sphere News

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Good morning America! The weekend just zoomed on by without notifying me that it was going to end. School is going well and fall break will be here shortly and thereafter (in two months) will be the semester break. I don't know about you, but I am ready for the long wintry, break. I have not gotten to blog as you may have wanted me to, but I have shared with you some very good essays dealing with the human development, the way human learn, and everything about psychology. I hope you have found the essays to be thought provoking. It took some effort to write those essays for class and figure that I would share them with you.

In other news, Friday I had to opportunity to have an interview with Alex who runs the Student Bloggers network. I was very excited to have received the e-mail on last week to answer the questions with responses like none other. I am featured in the latest edition of Meet a Student Blogger. It is a very good interview between Alex and I on blogging, the Synchbroblog, and the future of me blogging after graduation. Go check it out!

The next round of Synchroblog will be later this month. October is back again along with Halloween. The topic may be related to Halloween. However, the topic has not be made yet. but nevertheless you can always suggestion any ideas or topics. However, the suggestion does really have to relate to Halloween, but you're always open to just say whatever you want. There may be some people that are already planning parties, deciding on what costume they want (for the younger children), and even the thoughts of haunted houses. A good thriller movie with your boyfriend or girlfriend would be spice up the romantic evening. And if you are single, then you can scar your own self with the elements of the movies and your imagination! So be on the lookout for the this month's topic.

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Positive and Negative Punishment

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When we all were young, punishment came in handy for our parents because they could have spanked us, taken the toy blocks from us, or even help us learn a lesson and from the mistakes of misbehaving. In this manner, parents are most likely to use negative punishment. This is defined as someone’s behavior decreasing because the positive stimulus is not longer present (1)***. An example of negative punishment is when a teacher removes a child from the class because he or she is misbehaving. The result of this the child getting taken out of the positive reinforcement of the learning environment to be separated from the others by being asked to sit in a corner and face the window or another punishment that does not allow the child to be with the rest of the class. In this case, the child gets punished and most likely will not make the mistake again in the future. On the bright, sunny side of punishment is positive punishment. Positive punishment along with negative punishment and all other concepts (listed in the textbook) can be confusing if the topic is not explained clear enough. This type of punishment occurs when a behavior decreases when the stimulus is not good. In other words, you have the behavior plus the stimulus in one way or another, which equals the effect on future behavior of a person. The stimulus is added to help decrease behavior (1)***.

Sometimes the consequences of the actions of the person who is getting punished can be good or bad. It all depends on the situation. Like humans, pets can be trained and punished as well. I have learned through research and the textbook that the punisher is also known as the aversive stimulus (1, 2)***. Sometimes a person can be afraid of the aversive (the human) because he or she knows what may happen although the consequences were thought out before misbehaving. The use of punishment must be effectively with either positive or negative reinforcement because the person with the bad behavior will most likely continue to have the same behavior before getting punished (2)***. Punishment can work with animals, too. Dogs, for example, are smart pets for animal loves; however, they have their own behavioral problems just as people do. The psychologist B. F. Skinner (1938) helped discover the concept of operant conditioning. Operant condition involves with an organism’s activity in the surrounding environment (1)***. With this said, dog owners will help dogs associate their activity or behavior so it will not occur often as it does or they will decrease the behavior so it does not exist any longer. A positive punishment that can be used with dogs is a water gun. This is a good example since it is harmless than other methods such as a shock collar that will cause pain to the dog. Continuing on with the example of the dog and the water gun, if the dog is outside and every time it goes into the owner’s house it gets the floor dirty and just make a mess everyone, the owner can use the water gun to spray the dog. However, just spraying alone will not be any use. Therefore, using verbal words and saying “no” as the dog comes in the house and leading the dog back outside will be a start to the decrease of the behavior. Reinforcement must be used because the punishment will not be effective. After doing this repetitiously, the dog may see the owner with the water gun and not even come into the house because it will know what will happen. (3)***.This is a good example of positive punishment that can be used on dogs as house pets.

To further explain the difference or the types of punishment, two more examples of positive and negative punishment will be given. A positive punishment is the use of time out. This is used in school and home by removing the misbehaving child from the positive environment in order to be placed in isolation (1)***. This happens at school because the child is causing problems with another student or being disruptive. Using time out whenever the child falls out of place, the stimulus (the punisher) must use a firm voice after a warning or two so the child is aware that you mean business. If the adult shows fear or starts to yell, then the time out is a waste of time and it will be used ineffectively (4)***. From using this form of punishment, the child is allowed to think about their actions and the consequences of their actions. Again, the adult who is dealing with the child should be calm and not loud. With this in mind, firm kindness and setting an example for the child is the goal of time out. The child is also learning how to decrease his or her behavior and think before acting in order to not repeat the bad behavior. The parent should keep in mine the location of where the child will be placed when in time out because active play should not be acceptable in this use of discipline. It is said to put the child in time out per minute of the child’s age (5)***. A negative punishment that deals with negative reinforcement is someone driving in heavy traffic trying to go to work or school. This is a negative punishment because it is being reinforced by the effort of avoiding traffic. However, you decide to leave home a lot earlier to avoid traffic because you want to make it one time for whatever is going on with at school or work. You try to go around the consequences of being late and stuck in traffic because you did not learn from your lesson from the day before on not leaving on early to make sure you are on time (6)***. This negative punishment is being reinforced by you avoiding the heavy traffic. We all know what the traffic is like in Memphis. So to these two are examples of two types of punishments.

In a previous class, I wrote on the topic of spanking in the form of punishment and the issues of physical punishment. Spanking can be considered positive punishment because the parent is teaching the child not to misbehave. At most times there is no reinforcement when the child is get spanked or beaten. The parent may just have the excuse of spanking a child because of anger or because they feel that they really need one for unjust causes. Also this is not an effective punishment because the child will get adapted to the parent spanking him or her and just keep misbehaving. That could lead to three or more spankings in one day (8)***. On the other hand, it can also be negative because the child will learn how to be afraid of the parent or fear the adult since he or she may know what the consequence may be if this is unacceptable conduct either at home or at school. Also it depends on how often the child is spanked in order to consider this as true discipline (7)***. Reinforcing the spanking with a firm voice will allow the child to know that the parent is the boss and that they mean what they say and they should do what they say. Either the child will obey or they will get spanked. It is the child’s choice of good or bad (9)***. This is a parent that uses authoritative parenting style. Spanking can go both ways of either type of punishment.

I remember when I was younger, not exactly, per se, but I remember getting punished. I got punished, mostly likely in the form of getting a beaten with the belt or grounded from my unacceptable behavior and a few grads here and there. The punishment was very effective because I learned my lesson and did my best to behave so that I will get the TV or computer taken away from me. I certainly did not want to get hit with the belt. The punishment affected me short and long term because I either learned the lesson or kept misbehaving or I continue to be on the right track of doing good in class and at home. Now from reflecting back on the punishment, I realized that my mother was only teaching me a lesson because she was the only parent in my life.

Sources:

  1. King, Laura A. The Science of Psychology.***
  2. http://www.drlinden.net/CBTLEC10.pdf***
  3. http://www.dogmanners.com/punishment.html***
  4. http://www.keepkidshealthy.com/parenting_tips/discipline/time_out.html**
  5. http://www.kidsbehaviour.co.uk/UsingTimeOutAsPunishment.html***
  6. http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/proj/nru/nr.html***
  7. http://www.apa.org/releases/spanking.html***
  8. http://www.naturalfamilyonline.com/5-ap/45-spanking-child.htm***
  9. http://earlychildhood.suite101.com/article.cfm/spanking_pros***
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Peer versus Parent Influences

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Judith Rich Harris believes that a child or anyone can be influenced by someone, in this case a young child, their every day experiences. Not only do children see what the parents do and fall into their habits, but they also are influenced by others such as their peers or outside linking environmental factors (1)***. Harris includes in her book the research data of twins being adopted and they are separated and living a life of their own, children who go to daycare while their parents work and those who actually stay home with them. Most importantly, the viewpoint of those who may be raised in a single household with one parent, and those children with both parents living with them (2)***. In one of her articles, Harris uses the Cinderella story as an example of her beliefs. She uses the story to tell show that Cinderella had two personalities: one at home with her stepsisters and another with the prince. She behaves different and obeys the sisters and does whatever they say and with the prince, he is in love with her and would like to date her and all that good stuff. However, though this is a fairy tale, she gives the readers this example to allow them to better explain what she believes in and to support her case in nurture assumption (2)***. If a child has other siblings it is possible for the parents to raise them all and treat them all equally, but yet they will be less influenced by the parents. This is possible because outside of the home they will be hanging around different group of friends mixed with people of various backgrounds (7)***. There are plenty of issues and debates that will go along with the issue of parents not having an ounce of influence on their child versus influence from the child’s friends.

As research shows, there are plenty of people jumping on Harris’ back about her book as well as what she believes in with child development. One fact that help Harris earn criticism is the information she writes about the genetics of the parent and how their genes are the biological aspect of helping to influence or raise their children (1, 3)***. Along with the genes the parents may have mostly influenced the children through positive parenting (3)***. When the parent is involved, they are helping the child to further develop their social skills and assisting with child development. Through research it appears that everyone is attacking her credentials and background information. Most are criticizing that she is not ready for the job or she is no the right person to do what she is doing and producing these facts and making judgments on influences on peers from each other or their parents. Some researchers criticize Harris on the issue of her believing that nature does not play a factor in child development. It is all about nurture rather than the biological inheritance (1)***. Instead of a certain condition such as breast cancer, sickle cell, or any other condition that pertains to the body, but it could be the nature of the child whether the child is influenced to be good or bad. Along the same lines if the child is influenced by the parent, then the child will act differently according to where they may be at and end up picking up other behaviors. They are responsible for parenting the child, but the child has a choice to take that advice from the parent and use it in life and even through the other stages of human development. (7)***. It does get complicated on others disagreeing with some of the information and conclusions Harris has reached over the last several years.

After doing a bit of research, I think about everything I have read in order to state my stand point on which side of this issue is the strongest. I could go for what Harris has said and everything (with the intention of cherry picking), but I could always end of contradicting myself. So with an open mind, parents can influence make a difference in their child’s life. That is their job. That is what parents are made for. If they are not influencing their child to be right or to be unique or different among all others, then they are not being a good parent. If this may be the case, outside of the home, the pressure from other peers may cause the child to be different. There is a possibility of the child or anyone, even teenagers and college students, and adults, to appear one way towards the parents, one way towards their friends, and another way towards their own selves. Not to digress, but the child must get help from the parent and teachers to start developing their social skills and come to the realizations of their moral values (1)***. Does it really matter if the parents are showing true influence in the family? Could other factors such as financial problems that the family is having and they are struggling, the ethnic background of the child, and peer pressure at school that will influence the child differently than what their family, teachers, and best friends (1, 4)***. In some aspect the parent will raise the child to be a respectful citizen whereas they may be influenced to misbehave at school or some place else?

After reading Harris’ views, I am not quite sure how I might change my own child-rearing practices. To look back on physically punishment, that can be a factor on influence the child to be respectful, aggressive, or a runaway child. However, it would be a good reason to influence my child to be good because that is what parents are for when have a child. Setting good examples is a good parenting influence since I am normally set good examples no matter who I am around. In the future, raising a child, it is important to be involved in his or her life because with less influence and paying attention to the child, he or she will mostly likely face peer pressure and this can lead to behavioral problems (5, 7)***. Parents should do their best to influence and raise their child or children to behave and make moral decisions. Everyone is different and has individual characteristics. However it is the parents to show responsibility to make sure the child or children get their act together to be a better person and to know that they can do anything they want.

Sources:

  1. King, Laura A. The Science of Psychology.***
  2. http://gos.sbc.edu/h/harrisj.html***
  3. http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/books/1998/9811.williams.parents.html***
  4. http://www.psychpage.com/family/library/harris.html***
  5. http://www.oberlin.edu/faculty/ndarling/adpeer2.htm***
  6. http://millennialchild.com/millennialchild/Assuming%20Nothing.htm***
  7. http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Marshall1.html***
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